Colorado

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Colorada Chiu
State of Colorado
Flag of Colorado State seal of Colorado
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: The Centennial State
Piau-gí: Nil sine numine
(Eng-gí: Nothing without providence)
Chiu-koa: ""Where the Columbines Grow" and "Rocky Mountain High"[1]"
Map of the United States with Colorado highlighted
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Coloradan/Coloradoan
Siú-hú
(kiam siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī)
Denver
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Denver-Aurora CSA
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-8
 • Ha̍p-kè 104,094 sq mi
(269,837 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 380 lí (612 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 280 lí (451 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 0.36%
 • Hūi-tō͘ 37°N to 41°N
 • Keng-tō͘ 102°03'W to 109°03'W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-22
 • Ha̍p-kè 5,456,574 (2015 est)[2]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 52.0/sq mi  (19.9/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-37
 • Ka-hō͘ siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $57,685[3] (tē-11)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Elbert Soaⁿ[4][5][6][7] in Lake Kūn
14,440 ft (4401.2 m)
 • Pêng-kin 6,800 ft  (2070 m)
 • Kē-tiám kap Kansas sio-óa ê Arikaree Hô[5][6]
3,317 ft (1011 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Colorado Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p 1876 nî 8 goe̍h 1 ji̍t (tē-38)
Chiu-tiúⁿ John Hickenlooper (D)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Donna Lynne (D)
Li̍p-hoat Chóng Gī-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân Michael Bennet (D)
Cory Gardner (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 4 ūi Kiông-hô-tóng kap 3 Bîn-chú-tóng (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Mountain: UTC-07/UTC-06
ISO 3166 US-CO
Kán-siá CO, Colo.
Bāng-chām www.colorado.gov

ColoradoBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. I ê siú-húDenver, siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī mā-sī Denver. 2000 nî ê sî, chôan-chiu ê jîn-kháu ū 4,301,261 lâng.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Elbert Soaⁿ kap Turquoise Ô͘.

Colorado ê pian-kài khí-sian sī kun-kù keng-tō͘ kap hūi-tō͘, hoān-ûi sī 37°N kap 41°N í-kip 102°03'W to 109°03'W chi kan.

Chiu lāi siāng koân ê soaⁿ sī Lake Kūn ê Elbert Soaⁿ, in oa-ná sī Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng tī Pak-bí ê chòe-ko-tiám, koân-tō͘ 4,401.2 m. Lēng-gōa, Colorado koh sī Bí-kok î-it goân-choân chhiau-kòe 1000 kong-chhioh koân ê chiu, i-ê chòe-kē-tiám sī óa tī Yuma Kūn kap Cheyenne Kūn chi kan ê Arikaree Hô.

Colorado siat liáu 4-ê kok-ka kong-hn̂g, chiàm chiu lāi 37% ê thó͘-tē.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chhiau-kòe 13,000 nî í-chêng, Bí-chiú goân-chū-bîn tio̍h í-kēng tī Colorado chit ūi khiā-khí. Tī Larimer Kūn ū chi̍t-ê khó-kó͘ tiám Lindenmeier, hoat-hiān ê bûn-bu̍t nî-tāi sī kong-goân-chêng 11200 kàu 3000 nî chó͘-iū. Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng ê tâng-pêng sī khah-chá jîn-lūi chhian-sóa ê tiōng-iāu kòe-lō͘. Kó͘-tāi Puebloans-lângColorado Ko-goân (Colorado Plateau) seng-oa̍h; Ute-lâng sī tòa tī Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng ê soaⁿ-kok. Lēng-gōa, Apache-lâng kap Comanche-lâng mā tī chiu lāi tang-pō͘ ū oa̍h-tāng. Hit-tong-sî, koh ū Arapaho-lâng kap Cheyenne-lâng kòe-lâi phah-la̍h.

Bí-kok tī 1803 nî ê Louisiana Bóe-tē (Louisiana Purchase) hō͘ in tit tio̍h Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng í sai ê thó͘-tē. Che chō-sêng Bí-kok kap Se-pan-gâ tùi Arkansas Hô téng tōaⁿ tē-khu sán-seng chhiong-tu̍t, in-ūi Se-pan-gâ hit-chūn kā chit ūi tòng-chò sī in si̍t-bîn-tē Santa Fe de Nuevo México ê seng-lí to̍k-chiàm tē-khu. 1806 nî, Bí-kok ê Zebulon Pike niá peng-á lâi chia thàm-lō͘, soah hō͘ Se-pan-gâ-lâng liah khì Chihuahua, āu-lâi pàng tńg--khì.

Tī 1819 nî ê Adams-Onís Tiâu-iok tiong, Bí-kok hòng-khì tùi Arkansas Hô í lâm kap í sai, koh-ū W100° sòaⁿ í sai kap N42° sòaⁿ í lâm ê thó͘-tē. 1821 nî 2 goe̍h 22 Bí-kok chèng-sek kap Se-pan-gâ kiàn-li̍p pian-kài. Koh tī 8 goe̍h chiap-siū Missouri Léng-thó͘ ê tang-lâm-pō͘ chò Bí-kok ê sin chiu-hūn.

Pe̍h-sek sī goân-lâi Be̍k-se-ko só͘ niá ê Bí-kok sin thó͘-tē.

Be̍k-se-ko mā tī 1821 nî 8 goe̍h to̍k-li̍p, koh siū Texas tōng-loān ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn éng-hióng, tī 1846 nî kah Bí-kok hoat-seng chhiong-tu̍t, 1848 nî chiàn-cheng kiat-sok liáu-āu, Be̍k-se-ko keng-kòe Guadalupe Hidalgo Tiâu-iok hòng-khì i-ê pak-pō͘ léng-thó͘.

1849 nî, Mormon-kàu lâng tī Salt Lake Soaⁿ-kok (Salt Lake Valley) kiàn-li̍p chi̍t-ê chiu, m̄-koh bô siū liân-pang seng-jīm.

1850 nî Hia̍p-iok (Compromise of 1850), tùi Be̍k-se-ko hia theh--lâi ê thó͘-tē, kiam chi̍t pō͘-hūn Texas, hong hun chò chi̍t-ê sin chiukap nn̄g-ê sin léng-thó͘, iā chiū sī California Chiu, New Mexico Léng-thó͘ kap Utah Léng-thó͘. 1851 nî 4 goe̍h, goân Be̍k-se-ko-lâng tī hit-tong-sî New Mexico Léng-thó͘ ê San Luis siat liáu sin chng, sī kin-á-ji̍t Colorado chiu lāi siāng chá ê tn̂g-kî Au-chiu-hē jîn-bîn chū-lo̍h.

1861 nî 2 goe̍h 28, Bí-kok chóng-thóng James Buchanan chhiam-sú hoat-àn, hō͘ Colorado Léng-thó͘ sêng-li̍p, hit-chūn ê pian-kài î-chhî kàu kin-á-ji̍t. 4 goe̍h sî, Bí-kok Lōe-chiàn po̍k-hoat. 1862 nî, Texas ê kun-tūi ji̍p-chhim New Mexico Léng-thó͘, chiàm-niá Santa Fe, Colorado ê chì-oān-chiá soah hiòng New Mexico Léng-thó͘ chhut-peng, beh khì hong-só Texas. Colorado kap New Mexico ê jîn-bé tī 3 goe̍h 28 ùi Glorieta Pass Chiàn-e̍k tiong cha̍h lo̍h Texas kun-tūi, liáu-āu Texas lâng tó-bé hòng-khì Santa Fe, thè tńg San Antonio, āu-lâi Pâng-liân-kok tùi Bí-kok sai-lâm chiū bô hoat-tō͘ koh chiàm-niá.

Tī 1864 nî, Léng-thó͘ siú-tiúⁿ John Evans chí-phài John Chivington niá-chhōa chhì-goān-chiá pó-hō͘ pe̍h-lâng, tùi-khòng Cheyenne kap Arapaho lâng. In āu-lâi khì kong-ki̍p chia goān-chū-bîn chiàn-sū tī Sand Creek ê tūn-iâⁿ. Nā chiàu chi̍t kóa kun-koaⁿ ê kóng-hoat, tōa-pō͘-hūn hong thâi--sí ê sī gín-á kap cha-bó͘-lâng. Bí-kok lio̍k-kun tiāu-cha sū-kiāⁿ, hit-tong-sî Bí-kok chóng-thóng Andrew Johnson ūi sū-kiāⁿ iau-kiû Evans thè-ūi.

Kâng nî 9 goe̍h Argentine Pass hoat-hiān gîn-khòng, sī Colorado āu-lâi kúi pái ó͘-gîn hong-tiâu ê khí-thâu.

1867 nî, Liân-ha̍p Thài-pêng-iûⁿ Thih-lō͘ (Union Pacific Railroad) thàng ji̍p Colorado, sái kàu tang-pak-pêng ê Weir (hiān-sī kiò Julesburg). Lian-ha̍p sòaⁿ koh tī 1869 nî kap Tiong-iong Thài-pêng-iûⁿ Thih-lō͘ sio chiap, goân-sêng thâu chi̍t tiâu thàng tāi-lio̍k ê thih-lō͘. Āu-lâi, koh-ū Denver Thài-pêng-iûⁿ kap Kansas Thài-pêng-iûⁿ liân lâi chiu-lāi.

1876 nî, Colorado siū liân-pang chiap-siū siat chò Bí-kok tē-38 chiu.

Kàu 1893 nî ê sî, Colorado thong-kòe lú-sēng tâu-phiò-khoân, in sī tē-2 ê tit tio̍h phó-thong soán-kí (universal suffrage) khoân-lī ê Bí-kok chiu-hūn, koh sī thâu-chi̍t-ê keng-kòe cha-po͘-lâng ê bîn-chiòng tâu-phiò thong-kòe khoân-lī ê chi̍t chiu.

Kun-kù 1930 nî Bí-kok Phó͘-cha, Colorado jîn-khái tī hit-chūn chhiau-kòe 100 bān lâng.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kun-kù Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k (United States Census Bureau) ê ko͘-sǹg, Colorado tī 2014 nî 7 goe̍h chhe jîn-kháu ū 5,355,866 lâng. Colorado jîn-kháu siāng chē ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Denver.

Chiàu 2010 nî phó͘-cha chu-liāu, Colorado jîn-kháu tiong 70% sī hui Se-pan-gâ-hē pe̍h-lâng, 20.7% sī Se-pan-gâ-hē kap La-teng Bí-chiú-hē, 4% sī o͘-lâng.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiàu Keng-chè Hun-sek Kio̍k (Bureau of Economic Analysis) ê ko͘-kè, pún chiu tī 2014 nî ê chiu-lāi chóng seng-sán (GDP) sī 306,663 pah-bān bí-kim.[8]

Sán-gia̍p hong-bīn, tiōng-iàu ê ū si̍t-phín ka-kang, ūn-su khì-kū, ki-hâi, hòa-ha̍k chè-phín kap kim-sio̍k khòng-sán. Chá-kî Colorado keng-chè sī oa̍h-khò khòng-sán kap lông-sán-phín, hiān-sî lông-gia̍p sán-phín chú-iàu ū kap leng-chè-phín, sió-be̍h, hoan-be̍h kap tiū-chháu téng-téng. Chhú-gōa Denver sī chi̍t-ê kim-hiông tiong-sim.

Colorado sī liân-pang chèng-hú tiōng-iàu ê pān-kong só͘-chāi, kî-tiong ū siat tiám ê liân-pang siat-si ū pí-lūn Pak Bí-chiu Hâng-khong Hông-gū Su-lēng-pō͘ (North American Aerospace Defense Command), Bí-kok Khong-kun Ha̍k-hāu (United States Air Force Academy) kap chi̍t kóa khong-kun kī-tē. Lēng-gōa mā ū Kok-ka Hái-iûⁿ kap Tāi-khì Koán-lí-kio̍k (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Kok-ka Chài-seng Lêng-goân Si̍t-giām-só͘ (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) téng-téng.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "Lawmakers name ‘Rocky Mountain High’ second state song | 9news.com". Archive.9news.com. 2007-03-13. 2016-04-01 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (Microsoft Excel). 2015 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. December 25, 2015. December 25, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Colorado QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. 2016-04-01 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. "Mount Elbert". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. October 20, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. October 21, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  7. The summit of Mount Elbert is the highest point of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
  8. Total Gross Domestic Product for Colorado, FRED.