Colorado

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Thiàu khì: Se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Map of USA highlighting Colorado.png

ColoradoBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. I ê siú-húDenver, siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī mā-sī Denver. 2000 nî ê sî, chôan-chiu ê jîn-kháu ū 4,301,261 lâng.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái]

Chhiau-kòe 13,000 nî í-chêng, Bí-chiú goân-chū-bîn tio̍h í-kēng tī Colorado chit ūi khiā-khí. Tī Larimer Kūn ū chi̍t-ê khó-kó͘ tiám Lindenmeier, hoat-hiān ê bûn-bu̍t nî-tāi sī kong-goân-chêng 11200 kàu 3000 nî chó͘-iū.

Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng ê tâng-pêng sī khah-chá jîn-lūi chhian-sóa ê tiōng-iāu kòe-lō͘. Kó͘-tāi Puebloans-lângColorado Ko-goân (Colorado Plateau) seng-oa̍h; Ute-lâng sī tòa tī Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng ê soaⁿ-kok. Lēng-gōa, Apache-lâng kap Comanche-lâng mā tī chiu lāi tang-pō͘ ū oa̍h-tāng. Hit-tong-sî, koh ū Arapaho-lâng kap Cheyenne-lâng kòe-lâi phah-la̍h.

Bí-kok tī 1803 nî ê Louisiana Bóe-tē (Louisiana Purchase) hō͘ in tit tio̍h Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng í sai ê thó͘-tē. Che chō-sêng Bí-kok kap Se-pan-gâ tùi Arkansas Hô téng tōaⁿ tē-khu sán-seng chhiong-tu̍t, in-ūi Se-pan-gâ hit-chūn kā chit ūi tòng-chò sī in si̍t-bîn-tē Santa Fe de Nuevo México ê seng-lí to̍k-chiàm tē-khu.

1806 nî, Bí-kok ê Zebulon Pike niá peng-á lâi chia thàm-lō͘, soah hō͘ Se-pan-gâ-lâng liah khì Chihuahua, āu-lâi pàng tńg--khì.

Tī 1819 nî ê Adams-Onís Tiâu-iok tiong, Bí-kok hòng-khì tùi Arkansas Hô í lâm kap í sai, koh-ū W100° sòaⁿ í sai kap N42° sòaⁿ í lâm ê thó͘-tē. 1821 nî 2 goe̍h 22 Bí-kok chèng-sek kap Se-pan-gâ kiàn-li̍p pian-kài. Koh tī 8 goe̍h chiap-siū Missouri Léng-thó͘ ê tang-lâm-pō͘ chò Bí-kok ê sin chiu-hūn.

Pe̍h-sek sī Bí-kok tùi Be̍k-se-ko chhiú tiong tit tio̍h ê thó͘-tē.

Be̍k-se-ko mā tī 1821 nî 8 goe̍h to̍k-li̍p, koh siū Texas tōng-loān ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn éng-hióng, tī 1846 nî kah Bí-kok hoat-seng chhiong-tu̍t, 1848 nî chiàn-cheng kiat-sok liáu-āu, Be̍k-se-ko keng-kòe Guadalupe Hidalgo Tiâu-iok hòng-khì i-ê pak-pō͘ léng-thó͘.

1849 nî, Mormon-kàu lâng tī Salt Lake Soaⁿ-kok (Salt Lake Valley) kiàn-li̍p chi̍t-ê chiu, m̄-koh bô siū liân-pang seng-jīm.

1850 nî Hia̍p-tēng (Compromise of 1850), tùi Be̍k-se-ko hia theh--lâi ê thó͘-tē, kiam chi̍t pō͘-hūn Texas, hong hun chò chi̍t-ê sin chiukap nn̄g-ê sin léng-thó͘, iā chiū sī California Chiu, New Mexico Léng-thó͘ kap Utah Léng-thó͘.

1851 nî 4 goe̍h, goân Be̍k-se-ko-lâng tī hit-tong-sî New Mexico Léng-thó͘ ê San Luis siat liáu sin chng, sī kin-á-ji̍t Colorado chiu lāi siāng chá ê tn̂g-kî Au-chiu-hē jîn-bîn chū-lo̍h.

1861 nî 2 goe̍h 28, Bí-kok chóng-thóng James Buchanan chhiam-sú hoat-àn, hō͘ Colorado Léng-thó͘ sêng-li̍p, hit-chūn ê pian-kài î-chhî kàu kin-á-ji̍t. 4 goe̍h sî, Bí-kok Lōe-chiàn po̍k-hoat.

1862 nî, Texas ê kun-tūi ji̍p-chhim New Mexico Léng-thó͘, chiàm-niá Santa Fe, Colorado ê chì-oān-chiá soah hiòng New Mexico Léng-thó͘ chhut-peng, beh khì hong-só Texas. Colorado kap New Mexico ê jîn-bé tī 3 goe̍h 28 ùi Glorieta Pass Chiàn-e̍k tiong cha̍h lo̍h Texas kun-tūi, liáu-āu Texas lâng tó-bé hòng-khì Santa Fe, thè tńg San Antonio, āu-lâi Pâng-liân-kok tùi Bí-kok sai-lâm chiū bô hoat-tō͘ koh chiàm-niá.

Tī 1864 nî, Léng-thó͘ siú-tiúⁿ John Evans chí-phài John Chivington niá-chhōa chhì-goān-chiá pó-hō͘ pe̍h-lâng, tùi-khòng Cheyenne kap Arapaho lâng. In āu-lâi khì kong-ki̍p chia goān-chū-bîn chiàn-sū tī Sand Creek ê tūn-iâⁿ. Nā chiàu chi̍t kóa kun-koaⁿ ê kóng-hoat, tōa-pō͘-hūn hong thâi--sí ê sī gín-á kap cha-bó͘-lâng. Bí-kok lio̍k-kun tiāu-cha sū-kiāⁿ, hit-tong-sî Bí-kok chóng-thóng Andrew Johnson ūi sū-kiāⁿ iau-kiû Evans thè-ūi.

Kâng nî 9 goe̍h Argentine Pass hoat-hiān gîn-khòng, sī Colorado āu-lâi kúi pái ó͘-gîn hong-tiâu ê khí-thâu.

1867 nî, Liân-ha̍p Thài-pêng-iûⁿ Thih-lō͘ (Union Pacific Railroad) thàng ji̍p Colorado, sái kàu tang-pak-pêng ê Weir (hiān-sī kiò Julesburg). Lian-ha̍p sòaⁿ koh tī 1869 nî kap Tiong-iong Thài-pêng-iûⁿ Thih-lō͘ sio chiap, goân-sêng thâu chi̍t tiâu thàng tāi-lio̍k ê thih-lō͘. Āu-lâi, koh-ū Denver Thài-pêng-iûⁿ kap Kansas Thài-pêng-iûⁿ liân lâi chiu-lāi.

1876 nî, Colorado siū liân-pang chiap-siū siat chò Bí-kok tē-38 chiu.

Kàu 1893 nî ê sî, Colorado thong-kòe lú-sēng tâu-phiò-khoân, in sī tē-2 ê tit tio̍h phó-thong soán-kí (universal suffrage) khoân-lī ê Bí-kok chiu-hūn, koh sī thâu-chi̍t-ê keng-kòe cha-po͘-lâng ê bîn-chiòng tâu-phiò thong-kòe khoân-lī ê chi̍t chiu.

Kun-kù 1930 nî Bí-kok Phó͘-cha, Colorado jîn-khái tī hit-chūn chhiau-kòe 100 bān lâng.

Tē-lí[siu-kái]

Elbert Soaⁿ kap Turquoise Ô͘.

Colorado ê pian-kài khí-sian sī kun-kù keng-tō͘ kap hūi-tō͘, hoān-ûi sī 37°N kap 41°N í-kip 102°03'W to 109°03'W chi kan.

Chiu lāi siāng koân ê soaⁿ sī Lake Kūn ê Elbert Soaⁿ, in oa-ná sī Rocky Soaⁿ-lêng tī Pak-bí ê chòe-ko-tiám, koân-tō͘ 4,401.2 m. Lēng-gōa, Colorado koh sī Bí-kok î-it goân-choân chhiau-kòe 1000 kong-chhioh koân ê chiu, i-ê chòe-kē-tiám sī óa tī Yuma Kūn kap Cheyenne Kūn chi kan ê Arikaree Hô.

Colorado siat liáu 4-ê kok-ka kong-hn̂g, chiàm chiu lāi 37% ê thó͘-tē.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái]

Kun-kù Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k (United States Census Bureau) ê ko͘-sǹg, Colorado tī 2014 nî 7 goe̍h chhe jîn-kháu ū 5,355,866 lâng. Colorado jîn-kháu siāng chē ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Denver.

Chiàu 2010 nî phó͘-cha chu-liāu, Colorado jîn-kháu tiong 70% sī hui Se-pan-gâ-hē pe̍h-lâng, 20.7% sī Se-pan-gâ-hē kap La-teng Bí-chiú-hē, 4% sī o͘-lâng.

Keng-chè[siu-kái]

Chiàu Keng-chè Hun-sek Kio̍k (Bureau of Economic Analysis) ê ko͘-kè, pún chiu tī 2014 nî ê chiu-lāi chóng seng-sán (GDP) sī 306,663 pah-bān bí-kim.[1]

Sán-gia̍p hong-bīn, tiōng-iàu ê ū si̍t-phín ka-kang, ūn-su khì-kū, ki-hâi, hòa-ha̍k chè-phín kap kim-sio̍k khòng-sán. Chá-kî Colorado keng-chè sī oa̍h-khò khòng-sán kap loân-sán-phín, hiān-sî lông-gia̍p sán-phín chú-iàu ū kap leng-chè-phín, sió-be̍h, hoan-be̍h kap tiū-chháu téng-téng. Chú-gōa Denver sī chi̍t-ê kim-hiông tiong-sim.

Colorado sī liân-pang chèng-hú tiōng-iàu ê pān-kong só͘-chāi, kî-tiong ū siat tiám ê liân-pang siat-si ū pí-lūn Pak Bí-chiu Hâng-khong Hông-gū Su-lēng-pō͘ (North American Aerospace Defense Command), Bí-kok Khong-kun Ha̍k-hāu (United States Air Force Academy) kap chi̍t kóa khong-kun kī-tē. Lēng-gōa mā ū Kok-ka Hái-iûⁿ kap Tāi-khì Koán-lí-kio̍k (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Kok-ka Chài-seng Lêng-goân Si̍t-giām-sek (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) téng-téng.

Chham-khó[siu-kái]

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