Missouri

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Thiàu khì: se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Missouri Chiu
State of Missouri
Flag of Missouri State seal of Missouri
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: The Show Me State
Piau-gí: Salus populi suprema lex esto (Latin)
Map of the United States with Missouri highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân Eng-gí
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Missourian
Siú-hú Jefferson City
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Kansas City
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Greater St. Louis Area[1]
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ 21
 • Ha̍p-kè 69,704 sq mi
(180,533 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 240 lí (390 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 300 lí (480 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 1.17
 • Hūi-tō͘ 36° N to 40° 37′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 89° 6′ W to 95° 46′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ 18
 • Ha̍p-kè 6,083,672 (2015 ko͘-sǹg)[2]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 87.1/sq mi  (33.7/km2)
Pâi-miâ 30
 • Ka-hō͘ siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $59,196[3] (22)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Taum Sauk Mountain[4]
1,772 ft (540 m)
 • Pêng-kin 800 ft  (244 m)
 • Kē-tiám Óa Arkansas pian-kài ê St. Francis Hô[4]
230 ft (70 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Missouri Léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p 1821 nî 8 goe̍h 10 ji̍t (24)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Eric Greitens (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Mike Parson (R)
Li̍p-hoat General Assembly
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Senate
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ House of Representatives
Chham-gī-goân Claire McCaskill (D)
Roy Blunt (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 6-ê Kiōng-hô-tóng, 2-ê Bîn-chú-tóng (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu Central: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166 US-MO
Kán-siá MO,
Bāng-chām www.mo.gov

MissouriBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. Siú-húJefferson City. Siāng toā ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Kansas City.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

"Missouri" sī tùi Missouri Hô só͘ hō--lâi, chit tiâu hô koh sī hō tùi Missouri-cho̍k. "Missouri" m̄-sī pún cho̍k ê ōe, sī tùi Miami-Illinois gí-giân tiong tùi chit cho̍k ê kiò-hoat "ouemessourita" piàn--lâi-ê.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tē-tô͘

Missouri sì-ûi ū 8-ê chiu, kap Tennessee kâng-khoán sī choân-kok siōng chē. I-ê pat-pêng sī Iowa; tang-pêng Mississippi Hô tùi-pêng sī Illinois, Kentucky, kap Tennessee; lâm-pêng sī Arkansas; sai-pêng sī Oklahoma, Kansas, kap Nebraska.

Tī Missouri chiu lāi siāng tōa ê hô-chhoan sī Mississippi Hô kap Missouri Hô. Kî-tiong Mississippi Hô sī tang-pêng ê pian-kài, Missouri Hô sī tùi tiong-pō͘ keng-kòe. Nn̄g-tōa to͘-chhī, iā-chiū-sī sai-pêng ê Kansas City kap tang-pêng ê St. Louis, lóng tī pún tiâu hô téng.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Khó-kó͘ chèng-kù lâi-khòaⁿ, 7-chheng nî chêng Missouri tē-khu chiū í-keng ū lâng khiā-khí. Kong-goân-chêng 1000 nî, chiū ū Mississipi Bûn-hòa ê chûn-chāi, in oa̍h-tāng hoān-ûi ê tiong-sim tāi-khài chāi kin-á-ji̍t ê St. Louis siâⁿ kap Cahokia ê Mississippi Hô iân-hōaⁿ. Cahokia hit sî sǹg sī tùi Gō͘-tōa-ô͘ kàu Be̍k-se-ko Oan chi kan bō͘-e̍k lō͘-sòaⁿ ê tiong-sim, m̄-koh in ê bûn-bêng tī chêng 1400 nî chó-iū soai-jio̍k, tōa-hūn ê jîn-bîn sóa khí pat-ūi.

Siāng-chá ē Au-chiu î-bîn-chiá tōa-pō͘-hūn sī Canada ê Hoat-kok-lâng, in tī kin-á-ji̍t ê Sainte-Geneviève kiàn-li̍p liáu Missouri thâu-chi̍t-ê Au-chiu-lâng chng-thâu. In tùi Mississippi Hô ê tâng-pêng kòe--lâi, tī hia, thó͘-tē í-keng bô hoat-tō͘ chi-chhî jîn-kháu ê chin-ka. Sainte-Geneviève piàn chò sī hoat-ta̍t ê lông-gia̍p tiong-sim, keng-kòe kau-e̍k hiòng New Orleans téng Louisiana tē-khu thê-kiong bí-niû.

Tùi New Orleans lâi ê Hoat-kok-lâng tī 1764 nî khai-siat St. Louis. In-ūi Fontainebleau Tiâu-iok, Hoat-kok kā Mississippi Hô sai-pêng ê thó͘-tē (Louisiana) koah hō͘ Se-pan-gâ.

St. Louis hoat-tián piàn mô͘-phôe kau-e̍k kap chìn-kháu-mi̍h bé-bē ê tiong-sim, Se-iûⁿ-lâng tī chia kap Missouri Hô iah Mississippi Hô téng-bīn ê goân-chū-bîn chò seng-lí, chiong hòe-bu̍t sàng khí oa̍h hái ê New Orleans chhut-kháu.

Hit-tong-sî lông-gia̍p mā tī chit ūi tng hoat-ta̍t, St. Louis koh tī khì-chûn hoat-bêng liáu-āu keng-ka hoat-tián.

1800 nî, Hoat-kok koh keng-kòe San Ildefonso Tiâu-iok tùi Se-pan-gâ chhiú-tiong tit tio̍h Louisiana tē-khu. M̄-koh chit hāng tiâu-iok sī pì-bi̍t, kàu 1803 nî 11 goe̍h 30 í-chêng, Louisiana oa-ná miâ-gī-siōng sio̍k Se-pan-gâ khòng-chè. Kòe bô lōa kú, Hoat-kok chiū kā Louisiana bē hō͘ Bí-kok, chit kài kau-e̍k Bí-kok-lâng kiò Louisiana Siu-bé (Louisiana Purchase).

Missouri tī chit chūn tit tio̍h "Hiòng Sai-pêng ê Tōa-mn̂g" (Gateway to the West) chheng-hō, in-ūi i sī 19 sè-kí khai-thok-chiá hiòng sai-pêng hoat-tián sî chhut-hoat ê só͘-chāi. Phì-jû St. Charles chiū sī Lewis kap Clark Thàm-hiám (Lewis and Clark Expedition) ê khí-tiám kiam tó-tńg sî ê chiong-tiám.

1805 nî Louisiana Léng-thó͘ (Louisiana Territory) sêng-li̍p, chéng-hú siat tī St. Louis. Āu-lâi lâm-pêng ê Orleans Léng-thó͘ tī 1812 nî kái chò Louisiana Chiu, pún-lâi ê "Louisiana Léng-thó͘" soah lâi kái miâ Missouri Léng-thó͘, i-ê jîn-bîn tī hit nî tit tio̍h li̍p-hoat khoân, khai-siat léng-thó͘ gī-hōe pēng-chhiá soán-kí tī kok-hōe ê tāi-piáu.

1811 nî kàu 1812 nî kî-kan, chiu-lāi hoat-seng liáu kúi kái M7.0 í-siōng ê tē-tāng. In-ūi jîn-khái bô ba̍t, siōng-bôn iú-hān.

1830 nî-tāi chá-kî, Mormon kàu-tô͘ tùi pak-pō͘ kap Canada î-bîn kòe--lâi, tī Independence siâⁿ téng só͘-chāi seng-oa̍h. In kap lâm-hong ûi chú ê chái-chêng î-bîn tī chong-kàu kap lô͘-lē-chè sū-bū téng sán-seng chhong-tu̍t. Mormon Chiàn-cheng tī 1838 nî po̍k-hoat, kiat-kó tī chiu-tiúⁿ Lilburn Boggs ê pang-chō͘ chi hā, kū î-bîn kā Mormon lâng kóaⁿ cháu.

1836 nî, keng-kòe hiòng goân-chū-bîn pō͘-cho̍k ê Platte Siu-bé (Platte Purchase), hō͘ pún chiu chin-ka sai-pak pêng ê chi̍t hūn thó͘-tē.

Tùi 1830 kàu 1860 nî-tāi kî-kan Missouri chin-ka tōa-liōng ê kok-lāi chhut-sì ê î-bîn, tī 1840 kàu 1850 nî-tāi, koh ū chin chē Ài-lân phah-hng kap Tek-kok kek-bēng éng-hióng chhut-hái ê sin î-bîn kòe--lâi. Kî-tiong Tek-kok-lâng tī Missouri Hô iân-hōaⁿ kiàn-li̍p khí phû-tô-chiú sán-gia̍p, mā tī St. Louis hoat-tián bih-luh chè-chō.

1895 nî St. Louis ê Liâm-ha̍p Chām (Union Station) chhia-thâu.

1890 nî-tāi kàu 1920 nî-tāi sī Bí-kok ê Chìn-pō͘ Sî-tāi, chāi Missouri mā chhut chi̍t-kóa chú-tiuⁿ hiān-tài-hòa kap kái-kek hú-pāi ê chèng-tī-chiá. Kî-tiong Joseph Folk tī 1904 nî tòng-soán chiu-tiúⁿ. Tī i chāi-jīm hit-chūn ū bōe-chió chè-tō͘ siōng ê kek-sin.

Missouri tī Jī-chhù Tāi-chiàn í-chêng, kang-gia̍p chiām-chiām hoat-tián. Thin-lō͘ kap léng-tòng ê ki-su̍t hō͘ Kansas Siâⁿ ē-tàng hoat-tián chò chhī-gû-gia̍p pau-chong kiam ūn-su ê tiong-sim. Chhú-sî Kansas Siâⁿ mā khai-sí ū liáu Bí-kok-sek ê lâu-á-chhù.

Kòe liáu 1950 nî-tāi tiong-kî, St. Louis kap Kansas City lóng siū tio̍h kang-gia̍p soe-thè ê éng-hióng sit-khí chin chē chè-chō-gia̍p kap thih-lō͘ khang-khòe. Kàu 1956 nî, thâu chi̍t kái khòa chiu ê kong-lō͘ hē-thóng (Interstate Highway System) kè-ōe tùi St. Charles khai-sí, kau-gōa khiā-ke ê to͘-chhī hêng-sek mā tī chia khí-heng.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Missouri tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 284,462 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[5] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng chò ê khang-khòe sī kiān-khong chiàu-kò͘ kap siā-hōe hû-chō͘ (health care and social assistance) sán-gia̍p.[6]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "Metropolitan Area Rankings; ranked by population" (Microsoft Excel). Census. US. 2000. July 31, 2010 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 24, 2015. December 24, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. December 9, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. goân-loē-iông tī October 15, 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. October 24, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Missouri, FRED.
  6. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-01-23 khòaⁿ--ê.