Oklahoma

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Thiàu khì: se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Oklahoma Chiu
State of Oklahoma
Flag of Oklahoma State seal of Oklahoma
Kî-á Tōa Chiong (Great Seal)
Chhiok-hō: Sooner State; Land of the Red Man; Native America
Piau-gí: Labor omnia vincit (Latin)
Map of the United States with Oklahoma highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân

Eng-gí

(CherokeeCherokee Nation kap UKB)[1][2][3]
Liû-thong gí-giân
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Oklahoman; Okie (colloq.)
Siú-hú
(kiam siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī)
Oklahoma City
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Oklahoma City-Shawnee
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-20
 • Ha̍p-kè 69,898 sq mi
(181,195 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 230 lí (370 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 298 lí (480 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 1.8
 • Hūi-tō͘ 33°37' N to 37° N
 • Keng-tō͘ 94° 26' W to 103° W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-28
 • Ha̍p-kè 3,911,338 (2015 est)[5]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 55.2/sq mi  (21.3/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-35
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Black Mesa[6][7]
4,975 ft (1516 m)
 • Pêng-kin 1,300 ft  (400 m)
 • Kē-tiám Little River at Arkansas border[6][7]
289 ft (88 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Oklahoma Léng-thó͘/Indian léng-thó͘
Sin chiu seng-li̍p November 16, 1907 (tē-46)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Mary Fallin (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Todd Lamb (R)
Li̍p-hoat Oklahoma Li̍p-hoat-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ
Chham-gī-goân Jim Inhofe (R)
James Lankford (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 5 Republicans (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu  
 • thong chiu (hoat-lūi-siōng) Central: UTC -6/-5
 • Kenton (hui-koan-hong) Soaⁿ-tē: UTC -7/-6
ISO 3166 US-OK
Kán-siá OK, Okla.
Bāng-chām www.ok.gov

OklahomaBí-kok lâm-hong ê chi̍t-ê chiu, jîn-kháu tāi-iok ū 3,579,212, pâi-miâ tē 28. I ê siú-hú kap siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Oklahoma City.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

"Oklahoma" chit-ê miâ sī tùi Choctaw-gí ê okla kap humma hō--lâi, ì-sù sī "âng lâng". Choctaw ê thâu-ba̍k Allen Wright tī 1866 nî kap liân-pang chèng-hú thó-lūn Indian Léng-thó͘ (Indian Territory) sú-iōng tiāu-iok sî thê-chhut[8].

Tī Choctaw-gí, "Oklahoma" chiū chhin-chhiūⁿ Eng-gí ê "Indian" kâng-khoán, sī chí kui--ê Bí-kok goân-chū bîn-cho̍k. 1890 nî Oklahoma Léng-thó͘ chèng-sek sêng-li̍p.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Oklahoma ê thó͘-tē bīn-chek ū 181,035 pêng-hong kong-lí. I sī Chêng-hong Sòaⁿ (Frontier Strip) ê kî-tiong chi̍t chiu. Tī Oklahoma ê tâng-pêng ū Arkansas kap Missouri; pak-pêng sī Kansas, sai-pak sī Colorado, sai-pêng sī New Mexico, lâm-pêng kiam sai-lâm sī Texas.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Wichita kap Caddo lâng chó͘-sian khah-chá tī kin-á-ji̍t ê Oklahoma tē-khu seng-oa̍h. Ūi tī kin-á-ji̍t Spiro ê Spiro MoundsMississippi bûn-hòa tī se-pêng ê tiong-sim, só͘ chàm sî-kan tùi 850 kàu 1450 nî put-téng.

Se-pan-gâ-lâng Francisco Vásquez de Coronado tī 1541 nî chiū lâi kàu Oklahoma tē-khu, chóng-sī Hoat-kok ê khai-thok-chiá tī 1700 nî-tāi chú-tiuⁿ chiàm-iú, kàu 1803 nî í-chêng Hoat-kok lóng iá khòng-chè chit ūi. Liáu-āu, Bí-kok tī Louisiana Bé-tē kòe-āu theh tio̍h Mississippi Hô í-sai ê thó͘-tē. Tùi 1819 nî kàu 1828 nî kî-kan, Oklahoma sī Arkansas Léng-thó͘ (Arkansas Territory) chi̍t hūn.

19 sè-kí, chin chē goân-chū-bîn tùi in ka-hiong hong sàng khí pat-ê só͘-chāi, Oklahoma tē-khu sī kî-tiong chit-ūi. Le̍k-sú siōng só͘ kóng ê "Ba̍k-sái chi Lō͘" (Trail of Tears) chiū sī teh kóng chia-ê kòe-têng.

Pe̍h-lâng khui-khún-chiá tī Indian Léng-thó͘ chin-ka, Bí-kok chèng-hú chāi 1887 nî kiàn-li̍p Dawes Hoat-àn, chiong pō͘-lo̍k thó͘-tē pun hō͘ koh-pia̍t ka-cho̍k. Che chi̍t hong-bīn kó͘-lē goân-chū-bîn chò-si̍t, chi̍t pō͘-hūn liân-pang chèng-hú tit tio̍h thó͘-tē. Kòe-têng tiong thih-lō͘ kong-si tit tio̍h beh chi̍t-pòaⁿ ê Indian thó͘-tē, bé tiāu he̍k-chiá sī pun hō͘ gōa-lâi khui-khún-chiá.

1907 nî 11 goe̍h 16, Oklahoma chiu kiān-li̍p, sī Bí-kok tē-46 chiu. Hit-chūn chio̍h-iû sán-gia̍p tī chiu lāi tng hoat-tián, thui-sai-á-kang liáu jîn-kháu ê chin-ka kap keng-chè oa̍h-tāng, koh hō͘ Tulsa siâⁿ piàn chò sī hit tong-sî "sè-kài chio̍h-iû siú-hú". Kàu 1927 nî, Oklahoma ê seng-lí-lâng Cyrus Avery khai-sí soan-thoân tùi Texas ê Amarillo khan lâi Bí-kok 66 Lō͘-sòaⁿ kong-lō͘ ê lí-sióng.

20 sè-kí chá-kî, chin-chōe hū-kīn chiu-hūn iû-kî Kansas ê o͘-lâng lâi Oklahome kiàn-li̍p chng-thâu. Tulsa ê Greenwood āu-lâi piàn Bí-kok siāng hù-jū ê Hui-chiu-hē jîn-bîn siā-lí.

1915 nî í-āu, siū Ku Klux Klan ê oa̍h-tāng héng-hióng, siā-hōe ê kín-tiúⁿ koan-hē ke khah giâm-tiōng. 1921 nî hoat-seng liáu pe̍h-lâng kong-ki̍p o͘-lâng Tulsa Chéng-cho̍k Po̍k-tōng. Chiàu ko͘-sǹg ū tāi-khài 300 lâng sí-bông.

1930 nî-tāi, chiu lāi chi̍t pō͘-hūn só͘-chāi in-ūi thiⁿ-khì kap chò-sit ki-su̍t ê būn-tê siū-hāi. Ū chi̍t chām khiàm-hō͘ koh kòe-jia̍t ê Thàu Tîn-bū (Dust Bowl) būn-tê tī Kansas, Texsas, New Mexico kap Oklahoma ê sai-pak jiáu-hāi, chō-sêng chin-chē lông-bîn cháu khì pat chiu seng-oa̍h. Jîn-kháu ê kiám-chió it-tī kàu 1950 nî tāi chia̍h kiat-sok.

Āu-lâi Oklahoma sit-si chúi-thó͘ ê pó-chhî kè-ōe, khai-siat tōa-chúi ê khòng-chè kap chúi-khò͘ hē-thóng. Kàu 1960 nî-tāi, Oklahoma kiàn-siat liáu chhiau-kòe 200-ê ô͘, sī Bí-kok siāng chē.

1995 nî po̍k-chà siū-hāi siòng-phìⁿ

1995 nî, Oklahoma Chhī Po̍k-chà hoat-seng, sī Bí-kok kok-lāi sèng-chit khióng-pò͘ kong-ke̍k tiong sún-hāi siāng giâm-tiōng ê chi̍t kái. Timothy McVeigh kap Terry NicholsAlfred P. Murrah Federal Building khǹg chà-tàn, chō-sêng 168 lâng sí-bông. McVeigh hong phòaⁿ sí-hêng, Nichols hong phòaⁿ chē-kaⁿ kui-sì-lâng.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kun-kù Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k (United States Census Bureau) ê ko͘-sǹg, Oklahoma 2014 nî 7 goe̍h hūn jîn-kháu sī 3,878,051. Chiàu 2010 nî ê phó͘-cha, 68.7% ê jîn-kháu sī Hui La-teng-hē Pe̍h-lâng (non-Hispanic White), 7.3% sī O͘-lâng, koh ū 8.2% sī goân-chū-bîn.

Gí-giân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Oklahoma chú-iàu kóng Eng-gí, chiàu 2000 nî tiāu-cha, sú-iōng jîn-khái chiàm chiu-lāi 92.6%. Tē-jī chē lâng kóng ê ōe sī Se-pang-gâ-gí, koh-lâi sī Cherokee-gí, tāi-khài ū 22,000 ūi Cherokee-lâng sī tòa tī tang-pō͘ ê Cherokee-kok (Cherokee Nation), in-ê pó-hō͘-tē, Cherokee-gí mā sī chia kap lēng-gōa chi̍t ūi Cherokee Indian ê Liân-ha̍p Keetoowah Siā-lí (United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians) ê koan-hong gí-giân.

Tī 2010 nî, Oklahoma jîn-bîn keng-kòe kong-bîn tâu-phiò "State Question 751" kā chāi-tē Eng-gí khiuⁿ-kháu Oklahoma Eng-gí tēng chò sī in chiu ê "Thóng-it Gí-giân" (Unifying Language), iā chiū sī koan-hong gí-giân.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Oklahoma tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 183,501 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[9]

Chāi-tē sán-gia̍p chú-iàu ū hâng-khong, lêng-goân, ūn-su, si̍t-phín ka-kang, tiān-chú kap thong-sìn. In sī Bí-kok kok-lāi pâi tē-3 ê thian-jiân gá-suh seng-sán chhiu, tī sió-be̍h seng-sán pâi tē-5.

Pún chiu ê chio̍h-iû sán-liōng tī 2015 nî 6 goe̍h ū 10,504 chheng-tháng (thousand barrels), tī Bí-kok kok-chiu lāi pâi-miâ tē-6[10]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Keetoowah Cherokee is the Official Language of the UKB. Keetoowah Cherokee News: Official Publication of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma (April 2009). Tī June 1, 2014 khoàⁿ--ê.
  2. UKB Constitution and By-Laws in the Keetoowah Cherokee Language (PDF). United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians. Tī June 2, 2014 khoàⁿ--ê.
  3. The Cherokee Nation & its Language. University of Minnesota: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (2008). Tī May 22, 2014 khoàⁿ--ê.
  4. Cherokee. Ethnologue. Tī April 11, 2014 khoàⁿ--ê.
  5. State & County QuickFacts. United States Census Bureau. Tī January 25, 2014 khoàⁿ--ê.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Elevations and Distances in the United States. United States Geological Survey (2001). (October 15, 2011--ê goân-bûn). Tī October 24, 2011 khoàⁿ--ê.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  8. Wright, Muriel (1936). Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma State University.
  9. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Oklahoma, FRED.
  10. Rankings: Crude Oil Production, June 2015 (thousand barrels), U.S. Energy Information Administration.