Oklahoma

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Thiàu khì: Se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
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OklahomaBí-kok lâm-hong ê chi̍t-ê chiu, jîn-kháu tāi-iok ū 3,579,212, pâi-miâ tē 28. I ê siú-hú kap siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Oklahoma City.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái]

"Oklahoma" chit-ê miâ sī tùi Choctaw-gí ê okla kap humma hō--lâi, ì-sù sī "âng lâng". Choctaw ê thâu-ba̍k Allen Wright tī 1866 nî kap liân-pang chèng-hú thó-lūn Indian Léng-thó͘ (Indian Territory) sú-iōng tiāu-iok sî thê-chhut[1].

Tī Choctaw-gí, "Oklahoma" chiū chhin-chhiūⁿ Eng-gí ê "Indian" kâng-khoán, sī chí kui--ê Bí-kok goân-chū bîn-cho̍k. 1890 nî Oklahoma Léng-thó͘ chèng-sek sêng-li̍p.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái]

Wichita kap Caddo lâng chó͘-sian khah-chá tī kin-á-ji̍t ê Oklahoma tē-khu seng-oa̍h. Ūi tī kin-á-ji̍t Spiro ê Spiro MoundsMississippi bûn-hòa tī se-pêng ê tiong-sim, só͘ chàm sî-kan tùi 850 kàu 1450 nî put-téng.

Se-pan-gâ-lâng Francisco Vásquez de Coronado tī 1541 nî chiū lâi kàu Oklahoma tē-khu, chóng-sī Hoat-kok ê khai-thok-chiá tī 1700 nî-tāi chú-tiuⁿ chiàm-iú, kàu 1803 nî í-chêng Hoat-kok lóng iá khòng-chè chit ūi. Liáu-āu, Bí-kok tī Louisiana Bé-tē kòe-āu theh tio̍h Mississippi Hô í-sai ê thó͘-tē. Tùi 1819 nî kàu 1828 nî kî-kan, Oklahoma sī Arkansas Léng-thó͘ (Arkansas Territory) chi̍t hūn.

19 sè-kí, chin chē goân-chū-bîn tùi in ka-hiong hong sàng khí pat-ê só͘-chāi, Oklahoma tē-khu sī kî-tiong chit-ūi. Le̍k-sú siōng só͘ kóng ê "Ba̍k-sái chi Lō͘" (Trail of Tears) chiū sī teh kóng chia-ê kòe-têng.

Pe̍h-lâng khui-khún-chiá tī Indian Léng-thó͘ chin-ka, Bí-kok chèng-hú chāi 1887 nî kiàn-li̍p Dawes Hoat-àn, chiong pō͘-lo̍k thó͘-tē pun hō͘ koh-pia̍t ka-cho̍k. Che chi̍t hong-bīn kó͘-lē goân-chū-bîn chò-si̍t, chi̍t pō͘-hūn liân-pang chèng-hú tit tio̍h thó͘-tē. Kòe-têng tiong thih-lō͘ kong-si tit tio̍h beh chi̍t-pòaⁿ ê Indian thó͘-tē, bé tiāu he̍k-chiá sī pun hō͘ gōa-lâi khui-khún-chiá.

1907 nî 11 goe̍h 16, Oklahoma chiu kiān-li̍p, sī Bí-kok tē-46 chiu. Hit-chūn chio̍h-iû sán-gia̍p tī chiu lāi tng hoat-tián, thui-sai-á-kang liáu jîn-kháu ê chin-ka kap keng-chè oa̍h-tāng, koh hō͘ Tulsa siâⁿ piàn chò sī hit tong-sî "sè-kài chio̍h-iû siú-hú". Kàu 1927 nî, Oklahoma ê seng-lí-lâng Cyrus Avery khai-sí soan-thoân tùi Texas ê Amarillo khan lâi Bí-kok 66 Lō͘-sòaⁿ kong-lō͘ ê lí-sióng.

20 sè-kí chá-kî, chin-chōe hū-kīn chiu-hūn iû-kî Kansas ê o͘-lâng lâi Oklahome kiàn-li̍p chng-thâu. Tulsa ê Greenwood āu-lâi piàn Bí-kok siāng hù-jū ê Hui-chiu-hē jîn-bîn siā-lí.

1915 nî í-āu, siū Ku Klux Klan ê oa̍h-tāng héng-hióng, siā-hōe ê kín-tiúⁿ koan-hē ke khah giâm-tiōng. 1921 nî hoat-seng liáu pe̍h-lâng kong-ki̍p o͘-lâng Tulsa Chéng-cho̍k Po̍k-tōng. Chiàu ko͘-sǹg ū tāi-khài 300 lâng sí-bông.

1930 nî-tāi, chiu lāi chi̍t pō͘-hūn só͘-chāi in-ūi thiⁿ-khì kap chò-sit ki-su̍t ê būn-tê siū-hāi. Ū chi̍t chām khiàm-hō͘ koh kòe-jia̍t ê Thàu Tîn-bū (Dust Bowl) būn-tê tī Kansas, Texsas, New Mexico kap Oklahoma ê sai-pak jiáu-hāi, chō-sêng chin-chē lông-bîn cháu khì pat chiu seng-oa̍h. Jîn-kháu ê kiám-chió it-tī kàu 1950 nî tāi chia̍h kiat-sok.

Āu-lâi Oklahoma sit-si chúi-thó͘ ê pó-chhî kè-ōe, khai-siat tōa-chúi ê khòng-chè kap chúi-khò͘ hē-thóng. Kàu 1960 nî-tāi, Oklahoma kiàn-siat liáu chhiau-kòe 200-ê ô͘, sī Bí-kok siāng chē.

1995 nî po̍k-chà siū-hāi siòng-phìⁿ

1995 nî, Oklahoma Chhī Po̍k-chà hoat-seng, sī Bí-kok kok-lāi sèng-chit khióng-pò͘ kong-ke̍k tiong sún-hāi siāng giâm-tiōng ê chi̍t kái. Timothy McVeigh kap Terry NicholsAlfred P. Murrah Federal Building khǹg chà-tàn, chō-sêng 168 lâng sí-bông. McVeigh hong phòaⁿ sí-hêng, Nichols hong phòaⁿ chē-kaⁿ kui-sì-lâng.

Tē-lí[siu-kái]

Oklahoma ê thó͘-tē bīn-chek ū 181,035 pêng-hong kong-lí. I sī Chêng-hong Sòaⁿ (Frontier Strip) ê kî-tiong chi̍t chiu. Tī Oklahoma ê tâng-pêng ū Arkansas kap Missouri; pak-pêng sī Kansas, sai-pak sī Colorado, sai-pêng sī New Mexico, lâm-pêng kiam sai-lâm sī Texas.

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái]

Kun-kù Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k (United States Census Bureau) ê ko͘-sǹg, Oklahoma 2014 nî 7 goe̍h hūn jîn-kháu sī 3,878,051. Chiàu 2010 nî ê phó͘-cha, 68.7% ê jîn-kháu sī Hui La-teng-hē Pe̍h-lâng (non-Hispanic White), 7.3% sī O͘-lâng, koh ū 8.2% sī goân-chū-bîn.

Gí-giân[siu-kái]

Oklahoma chú-iàu kóng Eng-gí, chiàu 2000 nî tiāu-cha, sú-iōng jîn-khái chiàm chiu-lāi 92.6%. Tē-jī chē lâng kóng ê ōe sī Se-pang-gâ-gí, koh-lâi sī Cherokee-gí, tāi-khài ū 22,000 ūi Cherokee-lâng sī tòa tī tang-pō͘ ê Cherokee-kok (Cherokee Nation), in-ê pó-hō͘-tē, Cherokee-gí mā sī chia kap lēng-gōa chi̍t ūi Cherokee Indian ê Liân-ha̍p Keetoowah Siā-lí (United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians) ê koan-hong gí-giân.

Tī 2010 nî, Oklahoma jîn-bîn keng-kòe kong-bîn tâu-phiò "State Question 751" kā chāi-tē Eng-gí khiuⁿ-kháu Oklahoma Eng-gí tēng chò sī in chiu ê "Thóng-it Gí-giân" (Unifying Language), iā chiū sī koan-hong gí-giân.

Keng-chè[siu-kái]

Oklahoma tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 183,501 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[2]

Chāi-tē sán-gia̍p chú-iàu ū hâng-khong, lêng-goân, ūn-su, si̍t-phín ka-kang, tiān-chú kap thong-sìn. In sī Bí-kok kok-lāi pâi tē-3 ê thian-jiân gá-suh seng-sán chhiu, tī sió-be̍h seng-sán pâi tē-5.

Chham-khó[siu-kái]

  1. Wright, Muriel (1936). Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma State University.
  2. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Oklahoma, FRED.
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