Alabama

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Alabama Chiu
State of Alabama
Flag of Alabama State seal of Alabama
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: The Yellowhammer State, Heart of Dixie, The Cotton State
Piau-gí: Latin-gí: Audemus iura nostra defendere Goán káⁿ hông-siú goán-ê khoân-lī
Map of the United States with Alabama highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân English
Liû-thong gí-giân

As of 2010[1]

  • Eng-gí 95.1%
  • Se-pan-gâ-gí 3.1%
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ Alabamian[2]
Siú-hú Montgomery
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Birmingham
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Birmingham to͘-hōe-khu
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-30
 • Ha̍p-kè 52,419 sq mi
(135,765 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 190 lí (305 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 330 lí (531 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 3.20
 • Hūi-tō͘ 30° 11′ N to 35° N
 • Keng-tō͘ 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-24
 • Ha̍p-kè 4,863,300 (2016 ko͘.)[3]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 94.7 (2011 ko͘.)/sq mi  (36.5 (2011 ko͘.)/km2)
Pâi-miâ 27th
 • Ka-hō͘ siu-ji̍p tiong-ta̍t $44,509[4] (tē-47)
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Mount Cheaha[5][6][7]
2,413 ft (735.5 m)
 • Pêng-kin 500 ft  (150 m)
 • Kē-tiám Mexico Oan[6]
sea level
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Alabama Territory
Sin chiu seng-li̍p 1819 nî 12 goe̍h 14 ji̍t (tē-22)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Kay Ivey (R)
Li̍p-hoat Alabama Li̍p-hoat-hōe
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Chham-gī-īⁿ R-25, D-8
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ Chiòng-gī-īⁿ R-72, D-33
Chham-gī-goân Richard Shelby (R)
Luther Strange (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu 6-ê Kiōng-hô-tóng, 1-ê Bîn-chú-tóng (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu  
 • most of state Tiong-iong: UTC −6/−5
 • Phenix City, Alabama area Tang-pō͘: UTC −5/−4
ISO 3166 US-AL
Kán-siá AL, Ala.
Bāng-chām alabama.gov

AlabamaBí-kok ê chi̍t-ê chiu. I ê siú-húMontgomery, put-jî-kò siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Birmingham.

Alabama tī 1819 nî ka-ji̍p Bí-kok Liân-pang, chiâⁿ-chò Bí-kok tē 22-ê chiu.

Tē-hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Alabama chit-ê miâ tāi-seng sī hō tī Alabama lâng, chi̍t kûn kóng Muskogee gí-giân ê pō͘-cho̍k. Tī Alabama-gí, in pún-cho̍k ê lâng tio̍h hō chò sī Albaamo (chiàu tē-hng ū chē khoán piàn-hòa).[8] Hernando de Soto ê kì-lio̍k lāi-bīn í-keng ū Alibamo; lēng-gōa ia̍h ū lâng kì Alibamu he̍k-chiá Limamu;[9] Siōng chá tī 1702 nî, Hoat-kok lâng mā chheng chia-ê lâng sī Alibamon.[10]

Pún jī ê ì-gī bô khak-tēng ê kóng-hoat, ū-ê ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi sī tùi Choctaw-gí ê alba lâi--ê (chí "si̍t-bu̍t" ia̍h "chéng-chí") kap amo (chí "chhiat", "siu-chi̍p") ū ê, goân-chéng ê ì-sù ū khó-lêng sī "chhái chháu-io̍h ê lâng".

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Alabama chóng bīn-chek 135,760 pêng-hong kong-lí, sī Bí-kok tē 13 tōa ê chiū hūn. Tī Alabama pak-pêng sī Tennessee, tang-pêng sī Georgia, lâm-pêng ū Florida kiam óa Mexico Oan, sai-pêng koh ū Mississippi.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Siōng-bô 12,000 tang chêng, goân-chū-bîn chiō chûn-chāi tī kin-á-ji̍t Bí-kok ê lâm-hong. Chêng 1000 nî kàu Āu 1000 nî sī khó-kó͘-ha̍k só͘ kóng ê Woodland sî-kî, tong-sî lâng tī chia hū-kīn hoat-tián chhut chi̍t khoán chè-chōe hûi-khì kiam sió kui-bô͘ lông-gia̍p ê bûn-hòa.

Tong Au-chiu-lâng lâu kàu ê sî, Alabama Chāi-tē ê pō͘-cho̍k ū Cherokee, Alabama, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, kap Koasati. Se-pan-gâ lâng tāi-seng tī 16 sè-kí khai-sí chiap-chhio̍k Alabama tē-hng, Hernando de Soto ê thàm-hiám tī 1540 nî keng-kòe liáu Mabila kap kî-tha ê só͘-chāi. Kàu 1702 nî ê sî, Hoat-kok lâng ùi Kū Mobile kiàn-li̍p khí siāng chá ê Au-chiu-lâng chng-siā; in koh tī 1711 nî kā siâⁿ sóa kòe kin-á-ji̍t Mobile ê tē-tiám. It-ti̍t kàu 1763 nî í-chêng, hia sī Hoat-kok niá-tē La Louisiane ê chi̍t pō͘-hūn.

Keng-kòe Chhit-nî Chiàn-cheng, Hoat-kok niū chhut hâm Alabama chāi-lāi ê thó͘-tē hō͘ Eng-kok, in chiong Alabama ōe ji̍p Eng-kok Sai Florida, tùi 1763 nî koán kàu 1783 nî. Té-bé tī Bí-kok Kek-bēng kòe-āu, pún tē-khu hō͘ Bí-kok kap Se-pan-gâ pun--khì. 1813 nî ê sî, goân-choân hō͘ Bí-kok chiàm-niá.

Mississippi kap Alabama ê kiàn-li̍p hoān-ûi ké-soeh-tô͘.

Mississippi ùi 1817 nî 12 goe̍h 10 ji̍t kiàn-li̍p chò sin chiu chìn-chêng, goân Mississippi Léng-thó͘ ê tâng-pòaⁿ-pêng hông pun chi̍t hūn chhut--lâi, tī 3 goe̍h 3 ji̍t kái chò Alabama Léng-thó͘, kàu 1819 nî í-chêng, in siat siú-hú tī St. Stephens. 1819 nî 12 goe̍h 14, Alabama sin siat chò Bí-kok tē-22 chiu, tong-sî chí-tēng siú-hú tī Huntsville, kàu 1820 nî ê sî koh sóa kòe Cahaba.

Chi̍t kóa gia̍p-chú chhōa in ê lô͘-lē tùi Téng Lâm-hng (Upper South) hiòng Alabama hoat-tián. Alabama tī 1810 nî àn ko͘-sǹg ū 10,000 jîn-kháu, kàu 1830 nî ê sî-chūn, í-keng chin-ka kàu 300,000. Chit-ê sî-kî, chiu lāi tōa-pō͘-hūn ê goân-chū-bîn ia̍h siū 1830 nî kok-hōe Indian Poaⁿ-sóa Hoat-àn (Indian Removal Act) ê éng-hióng, hông chhian khì pa̍t ūi.

1861 nî 1 goe̍h 11, Alabama soan-pò͘ thoat-lî liân-pang, keng-kòe kúi ji̍t to̍k-li̍p kiōng-hô ê tē-ūi, té-bé ka-ji̍p America Pang-liân-kok. Tong-sî Pang-liân siat siú-hú tī Montgomery. Alabama ū 12 bān ê peng-á chham-ka liáu Bí-kok Lōe-chiàn.

Chiàn-sū kòe-āu sī Bí-kok ê Tiông-kiàn sî-kî, Alabama ê lô͘-lē tī 1865 nî hông kái-hòng. Alabama siū chi̍t tōaⁿ sî-kî ê kun-sū thóng-tī, kàu 1868 nî ê sî têng-sin ka-ji̍p Bí-kok. In mā tī 1868 nî kiàn-li̍p sin-ê hiàn-hoat, siat-li̍p kong ha̍k-hāu hē-thóng jî-chhiá ka-kiông cha-bó͘-lâng ê koân-lī.

Lōe-chiàn liáu-āu, mā koh hoat-seng chiam-tùi chù-iû-lâng (chū-iû ê chêng lô͘-lē) kap Kiōng-hô-tóng phài ê hoán-loān, chiō sī goân-chho͘ ê Ku Klux Klan ūn-tōng. Kàu 1874 nî, Bîn-chú-tóng têng-sin khòng-chè liáu Alabama ê li̍p-hoat-koân kiam chiu-tiúⁿ ê ūi, koh ùi 1875 nî chè-tēng lēng-gōa ê hiàn-hoat, khai-sí si̍t-hêng chi̍t kóa chéng-cho̍k pun-lī ê chèng-chhek. 1901 nî ê Alabama Hiàn-hoat chiō pau-koat liáu kiám-khoân (disenfranchisement) kap hun-lî ê kui-tēng, chi̍t hong-bīn keng-kòe sòe-kim kap bat-jī chhì-giām, kàng-kē O͘-lâng kap goân-chū-bîn ê tâu-phiò-koân. chi̍t hong-bīn ia̍h iau-kiû kong-li̍p ha̍k-hāu hun-lî chéng-cho̍k.

Koan-hē Tē-jī-chhù Sè-kài Tāi-chiàn ê su-kiû, ín-khí chi̍t kái keng-chè ê hoat-ián. Tùi 1940 nî kàu 1943 nî, chhiau-kòe 8.9 bān lâng sóa ji̍p siâⁿ-chhī chò chiàn-cheng siong-koan ê khang-khòe.[11]

1950, 60 nî-tāi, sī O͘-lâng Kong-bîn-khoân Ūn-tōng oa̍h-hiáⁿ ê sî-chūn, in iau-kiû kiat-sok chá-chêng kiàn-li̍p ê kiám-khoân kap hun-lî chèng-chhek. 1954 nî, Bí-kok Chòe-ko Hoat-īⁿ keng-kòe Brown tùi Kàu-io̍k-hōe kong-àn, chhâi-phòaⁿ kong-li̍p ha̍k-hāu tio̍h ài chhú-siau hun-lî chè-tō͘, chóng-sī Alabama sī thoa-soa--á phòe-ha̍p, jî-chhiá ia̍h hoán-khòng liân-pang ê an-pâi. Té-bé hoat-seng chē pái ê Kong-bîn Khoân-lī Ūn-tōng sū-kiāⁿ, pí-lūn Montgomery Bus Boycott, Freedom Rides, Selma to Montgomery iû-hêng téng oa̍h-tāng.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Alabama tī 2015 nî ê GDP sī 199,656 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[12] Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng chò ê khang-khòe sī chè-chō-gia̍p.[13]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Stephens, Challen (19 October 2015). "A look at the languages spoken in Alabama and the drop in the Spanish speaking population". AL.com. 21 September 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. "State of Alabama". The Battle of Gettysburg. July 21, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. December 26, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. December 9, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. "Cheehahaw". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. October 20, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. goân-loē-iông tī October 15, 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. October 21, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  7. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  8. Sylestine, Cora; Hardy; Heather; and Montler, Timothy (1993). Dictionary of the Alabama Language. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73077-2. OCLC 26590560. 
  9. "Alabama: The State Name". All About Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī June 28, 2007. August 2, 2007 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  10. Read, William A. (1984). Indian Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X. OCLC 10724679. 
  11. Thomason, Michael (2001). Mobile : The New History of Alabama's First City. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. pp. 213–217. ISBN 0-8173-1065-7. 
  12. "Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Alabama". Economic Research at the St. Louis Fed (FRED). 2016-12-07. 2017-01-10 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-01-23 khòaⁿ--ê.