South Dakota

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South DakotaBí-kok tiong-se-pō͘ ê chi̍t-ê chiu, jîn-kháu tāi-iok ū 781,919, pâi-miâ tē 46. I ê siú-húPierre, siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Sioux Falls.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

South Dakota tùi tāi-khài chêng 5000 nî chiū ū lâng khiā-khí.

Kong-goân 500 kàu 800 nî kan, tōa-hūn tang-pō͘ ê South Dakota tòa chi̍t kûn kiò Thô͘-tun Chō-chok-lâng (Mound Builders) ê bûn-hòa. In ū tun thô͘-tun ê koàn-sì, chi̍t pō͘-hūn tī oa̍h Big Siou Hô kap Big Stone Ô͘ hū-kīn, tī khah tang-pō mā ū in ê ûi-chek.

Karl Bodmer tī 19 sè-kí só͘ ōe ê Arikara chiàn-sū.

Kàu 1250 nî kap 1400 nî tiong-ng, khó-lêng sī kin-á-ji̍t North Dakota Mandan pō͘-lo̍k ê chó͘-sian, lâi kàu South Dakota oa̍h-tāng. Tī 1325 nî, kun-kù khó-kó͘ chèng-kù, tī Chamberlain siâⁿ hū-kīn hoat-seng Crow Creek Chám-àn (Crow Creek Massacre), ū 486-ê kut-hâi hong hoat-kìⁿ.

16 sè-kí sî, lâm-pō͘ lâi liáu Arikara pō͘-lo̍k, kap hū-kīn cho̍k-kûn pí--khì-lâi, in khiā-khí ê só͘-chāi khah kò͘-tēng-ūi, tû-liáu phah-la̍h ū choh-sit, lēng-goa mā kap gōa-pō͘ ū seng-lí koan-hē. In-ê kok chng-thâu ū chū-chú ê chèng-tī. Kàu 17 sè-kí, Arikara ê sè-le̍k lâi kàu siōng kiông ê sî-tāi, m̄-koh kòe liáu 18 sè-kí, in í-keng ha̍p ji̍p pak-pêng ê Mandan lâng.

Kàu 19 sè-kí, chú-iàu chi-phòe pún tē-khu ê cho̍k kûn piàn chò Sioux cho̍k.

1803 nî, Bí-kok hiòng Hoat-kok siu-bé liáu Louisiana léng-thó͘, lāi-bīn pau-koat tōa-hūn kin-á-ji̍t ê South Dakota. Liáu-āu, chóng-thóng Thomas Jefferson phài chhut Lewis kap Clark thám-hiám-tūi (Lewis and Clark Expedition) khí thàm-chhâ sin léng-thó͘.

1817 nî, Bí-kok-lâng tī kin-á-ji̍t Fort Pierre khai-siat mô͘-phôe kau-e̍k-chām. Kàu 1850 nî-tāi, Bí-kok kap Au-chiu tùi chit ūi ê khai-hoat khoài-sok chin-ka. 1958 nî, Dakota-lâng tiong ê Yankton Sioux pō͘-lo̍k chiam-iok, kā tōa-hūn kin-á-ji̍t ê South Dakota koah hō͘ Bí-kok.

Khai-hoat thó͘-tē ê seng-lí-lâng kiàn-li̍p liáu kin-á-ji̍t South Dakota tang-pêng ê nn̄g tōa tō͘-chī, iah chio̍h sī 1856 nî ê Sioux Falls kap 1859 nî ê Yankton. 1861 nî sî, Dakota Léng-thó͘ (Dakota Territory) sêng-li̍p, pau-koat hiān-sî North Dakota kap South Dakota, koh ū chi̍t pō͘-hūn ê Montana kap Wyoming. Liáu-āu, iû-kî kòe 1873 nî thin-lō͘ liân thàng kah Yankton, tùi Bí-kok tang-pō͘ kap Au-chiu ê î-bîn chin-ka khoài-kín.

1868 nî, Bí-kok chhiam-liáu Laramie Tiâu-iok (Treaty of Laramie), kā South Dakota se pòaⁿ pêng pun hō͘ Sioux lâng. M̄-koh 1874 nî, George A. Custer chhōa-tūi thàm-chhâ sî, tī Black Hills hoat-kiàn n̂g-kim, chō-sêng chin chē hui-hoat chhái-ku̍t ê lâng nǹg ji̍p pún-tē. Āu-bóe Sioux kap Bí-kok hoat-seng chiàn-cheng jî-chhiá Bí-kok chiàn iâⁿ. Kiat-kó Sioux lâng ê Tōa Sioux Pó-liû-khu (Great Sioux Reservation) hong thiah chò 5 hūn, koh kā Lakota lâng sóa lâi chia.

1889 nî 11 goe̍h chhe 2, chóng-thóng Benjamin Harrison chhiam-sú kong-kò, chia̍p-siū Dakota hun chò South kap North Dakota ka-ji̍p liân-pang.

Kàu 1890 nî 12 goe̍h, Pine Ridge Indian Pó-liû-khu (Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) hoat-seng Wounded Knee Chhám-àn (Wounded Knee Massacre), sī Bí-kok kap Lakota Sioux Kok (Lakota Sioux Nation) ê chhiong-tu̍t, chō-sêng gín-á chāi-lāi siōng-bô 146-ê lâng sí, Bí-kok kun-jîn mā ū 31 lâng chiàn-sí.

1930 nî-tāi, keng-chè ê bái kéng-khì kap khì-hāu put-sūn tùi South Dakota chō-sêng put-sió ê siong-hāi. Chit tōaⁿ khiàm hō͘-chúi koh ūn-tō͘ kòe koân ê chai-hāi hong kiò chò Thàu Tîn-bū (Dust Bowl), chhim-hāi liáu pún chiú kap hū-kīn só͘-chāi. Āu-bóe koh tú tio̍h Tōa Siau-tiâu, chō-sêng jîn-kháu chhut-cháu, tùi 1930 nî kàu 1940 nî kan kàng liáu 7%.

1941 nî, Bí-kok ka-ji̍p Jī-chhù Tāi-chiàn, soah hō͘ keng-chè khoe-ho̍k ún-tēng, hit tong-sî lông-sán kap kang-sán lóng siū chiàn-cheng tōng-goân. 1944 nî, in thong-kòe Pick–Sloan Kè-ōe (Pick–Sloan Plan), sī Bí-kok tong-nî Tōa-chúi Khòng-chè Hoat-àn (Flood Control Act) kî-tiong chi̍t hāng. Kè-ōe tī Missouri Hô téng kiàn-siat 6-chō chúi-pà, kî-tiong 4-chō sǹg sī siat tī South Dakota chiu lāi.

Tùi 1960 nî khai-siat khòa-chiu ê kong-lō͘ liáu-āu, South Dakota hoat-tián liáu koan-kong-gia̍p. Kim-iông ho̍k-bū mā khai-sí khí-heng, pí-lūn Citibank tī 1981 nî kā in sìn-iōng-khá pō͘-mn̂g lâi Sioux Falls.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

South Dakota ūi tī leh Bí-kok tiong-pak-pêng, chiàu Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k (U.S. Census Bureau) koàn-sì sī hun tī Tiong-sai-pō͘ (Midwest); lēng-gōa i mā sǹg tī Tōa Pêng-goân tē-khu.

Chiu lāi siōng koân ê soaⁿ sī Harney Peak, ū 2,207 m koân, nā siōng kē ê tē-tiám sī tī Big Stong Ô͘ sì-ûi, koân 294 m. Kui chiu chóng biān-chek ū 188,730 km2, choân-kok pâi 17-miâ.

Tī pún chiu pak-pêng sī North Dakota, lâm-pêng sī Nebraska, tang-pêng sī Iowa kap Minnesota, sai-pêng ū Wyoming kap Montana. Bí-kok ê tē-lí tiong-sim (hâm Hawaii kap Alaska lâi sǹg), sī tī Butte Kūn ê Belle Fourche.

Seng-thài[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tōa-pō͘-hūn South Dakota lóng sī ūn-tāi ê chháu-goân seng-bu̍t-siōng.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

South Dakota tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 45,867 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[1] Hiān-sî pún chiu siōng tōa ê keng-chè lūi-hêng sī ho̍k-bū-gia̍p, pau-koat sió-bē, kim-hiông kap khiān-khong chiàu-kò͘ téng-téng. Bí-kok ê tōa gîn-hâng Citibank tī 1981 nî ùi chia siat-liáu choân-kok-sèng tāi-chì chhú-lí ê pō͘-mn̂g.

Lông-gia̍p khah-chá chio̍h sī chia ê chú-iàu sán-gia̍p, kàu kin-á-ji̍t óa-ná tùi keng-chè chin ū kòng-hiān. In siōng ū kè-ta̍t ê lông-sán-phín ū gû-á, ti-á, hoan-be̍h, tōa-tāu, tōa-be̍h.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]