South Dakota

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Thiàu khì: se̍h chām, chhiau-chhoē
State of South Dakota
Flag of South Dakota State seal of South Dakota
Chiu-kî Chiu-chiong
Chhiok-hō: The Mount Rushmore State (koan-hong)
Piau-gí: Under God the people rule
Map of the United States with South Dakota highlighted
Koan-hong gí-giân Eng-gí[1]
Chū-bîn chheng-ho͘ South Dakotan
Siú-hú Pierre
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Sioux Falls
Siāng-tōa to͘-hōe Sioux Falls metropolitan area
Bīn-chek Pâi-miâ tē-17
 • Ha̍p-kè 78,116[2] sq mi
(199,729 km2)
 • Tang-sai khoah 210 lí (340 km)
 • Lâm-pak khoah 380 lí (610 km)
 • % chúi-bīn 1.7
 • Hūi-tō͘ 42° 29′ N to 45° 56′ N
 • Keng-tō͘ 96° 26′ W to 104° 03′ W
Jîn-kháu Pâi-miâ tē-46
 • Ha̍p-kè 865,454 (2016 est)[3]
 • Bi̍t-tō͘ 11.08/sq mi  (4.33/km2)
Pâi-miâ tē-46
Koân-tō͘
 • Ko-tiám Black Elk Peak[4][5][6]
7,244 ft (2208 m)
 • Pêng-kin 2,200 ft  (670 m)
 • Kē-tiám Big Stone Lake (tī Minnesota pian-kài)[5][6]
968 ft (295 m)
Siat chiu chìn-chêng Dakota Territory
Sin chiu seng-li̍p November 2, 1889 (40th)
Chiu-tiúⁿ Dennis Daugaard (R)
Hù-chiu-tiúⁿ Matt Michels (R)
Li̍p-hoat South Dakota Legislature
 • Siōng-gī-īⁿ Senate
 • Hā-gī-īⁿ House of Representatives
Chham-gī-goân John Thune (R)
Mike Rounds (R)
Chiòng-gī-īⁿ tāi-piáu Kristi Noem (R) (lia̍t-toaⁿ)
Sî-khu  
 • tâng-pòaⁿ-pêng Central: UTC -6/-5
 • sai-pòaⁿ-pêng Mountain: UTC -7/-6
ISO 3166 US-SD
Kán-siá SD,
Bāng-chām www.sd.gov

South DakotaBí-kok tiong-se-pō͘ ê chi̍t-ê chiu, jîn-kháu tāi-iok ū 781,919, pâi-miâ tē 46. I ê siú-húPierre, siāng-tōa ê siâⁿ-chhī sī Sioux Falls.

Tē-lí[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

South Dakota ūi tī leh Bí-kok tiong-pak-pêng, chiàu Bí-kok Phó͘-cha Kio̍k koàn-sì sī hun tī Tiong-sai-pō͘ (Midwest); lēng-gōa i mā sǹg tī Tōa Pêng-goân tē-khu.

Chiu lāi siōng koân ê soaⁿ sī Harney Peak, ū 2,207 m koân, nā siōng kē ê tē-tiám sī tī Big Stong Ô͘ sì-ûi, koân 294 m. Kui chiu chóng biān-chek ū 188,730 km2, choân-kok pâi 17-miâ.

Tī pún chiu pak-pêng sī North Dakota, lâm-pêng sī Nebraska, tang-pêng sī Iowa kap Minnesota, sai-pêng ū Wyoming kap Montana. Bí-kok ê tē-lí tiong-sim (hâm Hawaii kap Alaska lâi sǹg), sī tī Butte Kūn ê Belle Fourche.

Seng-thài[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tōa-pō͘-hūn South Dakota lóng sī ūn-tāi ê chháu-goân seng-bu̍t-siōng. Tōa-pō͘-hūn thó͘-tē sī chháu-po͘ he̍k-chiá chok-bu̍t, nā óa hô-piⁿ, ū 1 kóa nâ-á tē. Pún chiu chú-iàu ê iá-seng tōng-bu̍t ū bison (1 lūi iá-gû), lo̍k-á, pronghorn (chap-kīn lo̍k ê tōng-bu̍t), Coyote (1 khóan lông) koh ū chháu-po͘-káu (prairie dog, beh sêng phòng-chhí ê tōng-bu̍t) téng-téng.

Siū koân-tō͘ chhām kàng-chúi éng-hióng, Black Hills kap pêng-goân tē-khu khah bô-kâng.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Siāng chá South Dakota tùi tāi-khài chêng 5000 nî chiō ū lâng khiā-khí. Kong-goân 500 kàu 800 nî kan, tōa-hūn tang-pō͘ ê South Dakota tòa chi̍t kûn kiò Thô͘-tun Chō-chok-chiá (Mound Builders) ê bûn-hòa. In ū tun thô͘-tun ê koàn-sì, chi̍t pō͘-hūn tī oa̍h Big Siou Hô kap Big Stone Ô͘ hū-kīn, tī khah tang-pō mā ū in ê ûi-chek.

Karl Bodmer tī 19 sè-kí só͘ ōe ê Arikara chiàn-sū.

Kàu 1250 nî kap 1400 nî tiong-ng, khó-lêng sī kin-á-ji̍t North Dakota Mandan pō͘-lo̍k ê chó͘-sian, lâi kàu South Dakota oa̍h-tāng. Tī 1325 nî, kun-kù khó-kó͘ chèng-kù, tī Chamberlain siâⁿ hū-kīn hoat-seng Crow Creek Chám-àn (Crow Creek Massacre), ū 486-ê kut-hâi hong hoat-kìⁿ.

16 sè-kí sî, lâm-pō͘ lâi liáu Arikara pō͘-lo̍k, kap hū-kīn cho̍k-kûn pí--khì-lâi, in khiā-khí ê só͘-chāi khah kò͘-tēng-ūi, tû-liáu phah-la̍h ū choh-sit, lēng-goa mā kap gōa-pō͘ ū seng-lí koan-hē. In-ê kok chng-thâu ū chū-chú ê chèng-tī. Kàu 17 sè-kí, Arikara ê sè-le̍k lâi kàu siōng kiông ê sî-tāi, m̄-koh kòe liáu 18 sè-kí, in í-keng ha̍p ji̍p pak-pêng ê Mandan lâng.

Kàu 19 sè-kí ê sî, chú-iàu chi-phòe pún tē-khu ê cho̍k-kûn piàn chò Sioux cho̍k ê lâng. 1803 nî, Bí-kok hiòng Hoat-kok siu-bé liáu Louisiana léng-thó͘, lāi-bīn pau-koat tōa-hūn kin-á-ji̍t ê South Dakota. Liáu-āu, chóng-thóng Thomas Jefferson phài chhut Lewis kap Clark thám-hiám-tūi (Lewis and Clark Expedition) khí thàm-chhâ sin léng-thó͘.

1817 nî, Bí-kok-lâng tī kin-á-ji̍t Fort Pierre khai-siat mô͘-phôe kau-e̍k-chām. Kàu 1850 nî-tāi, Bí-kok kap Au-chiu tùi chit ūi ê khai-hoat khoài-sok chin-ka. 1958 nî, Dakota-lâng tiong ê Yankton Sioux pō͘-lo̍k chiam-iok, kā tōa-hūn kin-á-ji̍t ê South Dakota koah hō͘ Bí-kok.

Khai-hoat thó͘-tē ê seng-lí-lâng kiàn-li̍p liáu kin-á-ji̍t South Dakota tang-pêng ê nn̄g tōa tō͘-chī, iah chio̍h sī 1856 nî ê Sioux Falls kap 1859 nî ê Yankton. 1861 nî sî, Dakota Léng-thó͘ (Dakota Territory) sêng-li̍p, pau-koat hiān-sî North Dakota kap South Dakota, koh ū chi̍t pō͘-hūn ê Montana kap Wyoming. Liáu-āu, iû-kî kòe 1873 nî thin-lō͘ liân thàng kah Yankton, tùi Bí-kok tang-pō͘ kap Au-chiu ê î-bîn chin-ka khoài-kín.

1868 nî, Bí-kok chhiam-liáu Laramie Tiâu-iok (Treaty of Laramie), kā South Dakota se pòaⁿ pêng pun hō͘ Sioux lâng. M̄-koh 1874 nî, George A. Custer chhōa-tūi thàm-chhâ ê sî, tī Black Hills hoat-kiàn n̂g-kim, chō-sêng chin chē hui-hoat chhái-ku̍t ê lâng nǹg ji̍p pún-tē. Āu-bóe Sioux kap Bí-kok hoat-seng chiàn-cheng jî-chhiá Bí-kok chiàn iâⁿ. Kiat-kó Sioux lâng ê Tōa Sioux Pó-liû-khu (Great Sioux Reservation) hong thiah chò 5 hūn, koh kā Lakota lâng sóa lâi chia.

1889 nî 11 goe̍h chhe 2, chóng-thóng Benjamin Harrison chhiam-sú kong-kò, chiap-siū Dakota hun chò South kap North Dakota ka-ji̍p liân-pang.

1890 nî 12 goe̍h, Pine Ridge Indian Pó-liû-khu (Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) hoat-seng Wounded Knee Chhám-àn (Wounded Knee Massacre), sī Bí-kok kap Lakota Sioux Kok (Lakota Sioux Nation) ê chhiong-tu̍t, chō-sêng gín-á chāi-lāi siōng-bô 146-ê lâng sí, Bí-kok kun-jîn mā ū 31 lâng chiàn-sí.

1930 nî-tāi, keng-chè ê bái kéng-khì kap khì-hāu put-sūn tùi South Dakota chō-sêng put-sió ê siong-hāi. Chit tōaⁿ khiàm hō͘-chúi koh ūn-tō͘ kòe koân ê chai-hāi hong kiò chò Thàu Tîn-bū (Dust Bowl), chhim-hāi liáu pún chiu kap hū-kīn só͘-chāi. Āu-bóe koh tú tio̍h Tōa Siau-tiâu, chō-sêng jîn-kháu chhut-cháu, tùi 1930 nî kàu 1940 nî kan kàng liáu 7%.

1941 nî, Bí-kok ka-ji̍p Jī-chhù Tāi-chiàn, soah hō͘ keng-chè khoe-ho̍k ún-tēng, hit tong-sî lông-sán kap kang-sán lóng siū chiàn-cheng tōng-goân. 1944 nî, in thong-kòe Pick–Sloan Kè-ōe (Pick–Sloan Plan), sī Bí-kok tong-nî Tōa-chúi Khòng-chè Hoat-àn (Flood Control Act) kî-tiong chi̍t hāng. Kè-ōe tī Missouri Hô téng kiàn-siat 6-chō chúi-pà, kî-tiong 4-chō sǹg sī siat tī South Dakota chiu lāi.

Tùi 1960 nî khai-siat khòa-chiu ê kong-lō͘ liáu-āu, South Dakota hoat-tián liáu koan-kong-gia̍p. Kim-iông ho̍k-bū mā khai-sí khí-heng, pí-lūn Citibank tī 1981 nî kā in sìn-iōng-khá pō͘-mn̂g lâi Sioux Falls.

Keng-chè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

South Dakota tī 2014 nî ê GDP sī 45,867 pa̍h-bān bí-kim.[7] Hiān-sî pún chiu siōng tōa ê keng-chè lūi-hêng sī ho̍k-bū-gia̍p, pau-koat sió-bē, kim-hiông kap khiān-khong chiàu-kò͘ téng-téng. Bí-kok ê tōa gîn-hâng Citibank tī 1981 nî ùi chia siat-liáu choân-kok-sèng tāi-chì chhú-lí ê pō͘-mn̂g.

Lông-gia̍p khah-chá chio̍h sī chia ê chú-iàu sán-gia̍p, kàu kin-á-ji̍t óa-ná tùi keng-chè chin ū kòng-hiān. In siōng ū kè-ta̍t ê lông-sán-phín ū gû-á, ti-á, hoan-be̍h, tōa-tāu, tōa-be̍h.

Chiàu 2015 nî ê chu-liāu, pún chiu siāng-chē lâng chò ê khang-khòe sī kiān-khong chiàu-kò͘ kap siā-hōe hû-chō͘ (health care and social assistance) sán-gia̍p.[8]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. "South Dakota Codified Laws (1–27–20)". South Dakota State Legislature. January 19, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. "State Area Measurements (2010)". U.S. Census. March 26, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. December 26, 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. "Black Elk Peak". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. 13 August 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. January 19, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  7. Total Gross Domestic Product by State for South Dakota, FRED.
  8. "Major industries with highest employment, by state, 1990-2015". Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2016-08-05. 2017-01-23 khòaⁿ--ê.