Chiu-lêng-koān

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Chiu-lêng-koān (周寧縣/周宁县) ūi-tì tī Hok-kiàn-séng tang-pak-pō͘, tē-lí ūi-tì tī pak-úi 26°53′ kàu 27°19′ chi-kan, tang-keng 119°06′ kàu 119°29′ chi-kan. Tang-pêng sī Hok-an (福安), sai-pêng kah Chèng-hô (政和) kau-kài, pak-péng sī Siū-lêng (壽寧), tang-lâm-pō͘ kah Lêng-tek kau-kài, sai-lâm-pō͘ kah Pêng-lâm (屏南) keh chit-tiâu khe. Thó͘-tē chóng-bīn-chek 1046 pêng-hong kong-lí. Tē-chhù Chiū-hong-soaⁿ (鷲峰山) tang-pêng soaⁿ-kha, tē-sè iû sai hiòng tang thán-chhiâ, pêng-kin hái-poa̍t 800 kong-chhioh, koān-siâⁿ hái-poa̍t 880 gōa kong-chhioh, sī choân-kok siōng-kài koân ê, ū "Ko-san Bêng-chu" ê chheng-hō.

Kéng-lāi chú-iàu khe-liû 18 tiâu, chòe-tōa ê Lêng-têng-khe (龍亭溪) tī kéng-lāi ū 56 kong-lí tn̂g. Sio̍k tiong-a-jia̍t-tài kùi-hong soaⁿ-tē khì-hāu, tang-thiⁿ khah tn̂g hē-thiⁿ khah té. Kàng-ú-liōng chhiong-chiok. Nî pêng-kin khì-un 14.6℃, nî kàng-súi-liōng 2069 hô-bí, hō͘-lâng kiò-chòe "thian-jiân khong-tiâu-siâⁿ".

Goân-lâi Chiu-lêng sī sio̍k-û Lêng-tek-koān koán-hat ê. Bîn-kok 24 nî (1935-nî) siat Chiu-tun Te̍k-chéng-khu (周墩特種區), ti̍t-lē Hok-kiàn sêng-hu. Bîn-kok 34-nî 8-goe̍h seng siat Chiu-lêng-koān, Sai-siâⁿ (獅城) sī koān-chèng-hú ê só͘-chāi-tē, tiàm-tī koān-kéng tiong-pō͘ Tang-iûⁿ-khe ê khe-kîⁿ, lî séng-hōe Hok-chiu 238 kong-lí, sī choân-koān ê chéng-ti, keng-chè, bûn-hòa tiong-sim.

2012 nî-bóe, choân-koān koán 6-ê tìn, 3-ê hiong, 141-ê chhun-úi-hōe, 5-ê siā-khu, 2-ê ku-úi-hōe, hō͘-che̍k jîn-kháu 20.36 bān lâng. Keng-lāi hàn-cho̍k chiàm 99%, sió-sò͘-bîn-cho̍k chú-iàu sī siâ-cho̍k, thong-hêng bân-gí bân-tang-gí (chek bân-tang hong-giân) hok-an-ōe, tān-sī kháu-im siong-chha chin-chē. Kong-lō͘ í 302 séng-tō ûi chú-kàn, Lêng-siong Ko-sok-kong-lō͘ koàn-chhoan keng-lāi.

Kiàn-chè Iân-kek[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiu-lêng kó͘-chá-sî sī sio̍k-û "Chhit-bân-tē" (七閩地). Chhun-chhiu sio̍k Oa̍t, chiàn-kok sio̍k Chhó͘. Chîn sio̍k Bân-tiong-kūn (閩中郡). Se-hàn ûi Bân-oa̍t-kok (閩越國), Tong-hàn sio̍k Hōe-ke-kūn (會稽郡), Sam-kok sio̍k Kiàn-an-kūn (建安郡), Chìn-lâm-tiâu sio̍k Un-bâ-koān (溫麻縣), Sûi-tiâu sio̍k Goân-hong-koān (原豐縣),(Bân-koān (閩縣)). Tn̂g-tiāu sio̍k Tn̂g-khoe-koān (長溪縣). Gó͘-tāi bân liông-khí goân-nî (933-nî) khai-sí sio̍k-û lêng-tek-koān (寧德縣), sòng-chho͘ ûi Chheng-tiân-hiuⁿ (青田鄉) Tang-iûⁿ-lí (東洋里). Bêng ka-chēng 35-nî (1556-nî) kiàn Tang-iuⁿ Hêng-koān (東洋行縣), iû Lêng-tek-koān chú-phō͘ koán-lí. Chheng iong-chèng 13-nî (1735-nî), hun-koah Tang-iûⁿ-lí 15 kàu 18 to͘ siat Tang-iûⁿ hun-koān, iû lêng-tek-koān koān-sêng chù-tī, kong-sū 33-nî (1907-nî) kóe iû koān-chó (縣佐) chù-tī.

Bîn-kok goân-nî (1912), Tang-iûⁿ Hun-Kōan khai-sí iû Lêng-tek-kōan phài Hun-chù-oân koán-lí. Bîn-kok 3-nî koh-chài siat kōan-chò. Bîn-kok 18-nî, chhú-siau kōan-chò siat-tī Kéng-chhat-só͘, chong-ha̍p koán-lí hat-khu hêng-chèng sū-bū. Bîn-kok 19-nî kái-siat Kong-an-hun-kio̍k. Bîn-kok 22-nî 6-ge̍h kái-siat Lêng-tek-kōan tē-5-khu. Bîn-kok 24-nî 6-ge̍h kái-siat Chiu-tun Tek-chéng-khu, thoat-lī Lêng-tek-kōan ê koán-hat, ti̍t-sio̍k Hok-kiàn-séng Tē-it Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu (Kong-sú tī Tn̂g-lo̍k. Bîn-kok 25-nî 2-ge̍h, koh-chài kái-sêng Lêng-tek-kōan Tē-saⁿ-khu. Bîn-kok 26-nî 1-ge̍h, chài hoe-ho̍k Chiu-lêng Tek-chéng-khu, lē-sio̍k Tē-it Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu. Bîn-kok 32-nî 9-ge̍h, kái lē-sio̍k Tē-poeh Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu.

Bîn-kok 34-nî 8-ge̍h 1-ji̍t kái kōan, í Chiu-tun, Lêng-tek nn̄g-ê só͘-chai ê thâu-chi̍t-ê jī chhú-miâ Chiu-lêng-koān, koān-tī tī Sai-siâⁿ, koán-hat thó͘-tē 639.6 pêng-hong kong-lí, lé-siok Tē-poeh Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu (Bîn-kok 36-nî 4-ge̍h, kái-chheng Tē-it hêng-chèng tok-chhat-khu).

Bîn-kok 37-nî 9-ge̍h, Lêng-tek sek Hâm-sam-hiuⁿ 127.7 pêng-hong kong-lí kui Chiu-lêng-koān koán, choan-koān bīn-chek cheng-ka kàu 767.3 pêng-hong kong-lí.

1949-nî 6-goe̍h 28-ji̍t, Chiu-lêng hô-pêng kái-hòng. 9-goe̍h 1-ji̍t, sêng-li̍p Chiu-lêng-koān Jîn-bîn Bîn-chú Chèng-hú. 11-goe̍h 12-ji̍t, sêng-li̍p Chiu-lêng-koān Jîn-bîn Chèng-hú, lē-sio̍k Hok-an Choan-oân Kong-sú.

1955-nî 9-goe̍h, Siū-lêng-koān ōe-chhut tē-la̍k-khu (hiān-chú-sî Sûn-tî-hiuⁿ ê 11 ê hêng-chèng-chhun kah Sì-kiô-hiuⁿ choân-pō͘ ê 278.7 pêng-hong kong-lí, kui Chiu-lêngkoān koán-hat, choân-koān bīn-chek cheng-ka kàu 1046 pêng-hong kong-lí.

1970-nî 7-goe̍h khai-sí, lē-sio̍k Lêng-tek Tē-khu.

Bîn-kok goân-nî (1912-nî), Tang-iûⁿ Hun-koān khai-sí iû Lêng-tek-koān phài hun-chù-oân tī-lí. Bîn-kok 3-nî tiông-sin siat koān-chò (縣佐). Bîn-kok 18-nî, chhú-siau koān-chò siat kéng-chhat-só͘, chong-ha̍p koán-lí hat-khu hêng-chèng sū-bū. Bîn-kok 19-nî kai-siat Kong-an Hun-kio̍k. Bîn-kok 22-nî 6-goe̍h, kai-siat Lêng-tek-koān tē-gō͘-khu. Bîn-kok 24-nî 6-goe̍h kai-siat Chiu-tun Tek-chéng-khu, thoat-lî Lêng-tek-koān ê koán-hat, ti̍t-sio̍k Hok-kiàn-séng Tē-it Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu (Kong-sú tī Tn̂g-la̍k <Tiông-lio̍k>). Bîn-kok 25-nî 2-goe̍h, koh-chài kái-sêng Lêng-tek-koān Tē-saⁿ-khu. Bîn-kok 26-nî 1-goe̍h, hoe-ho̍k ûi Chiu-tun Tek-chéng-khu, lē-sio̍k lē-sio̍k Tē-it Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu. Bîn-kok 32-nî 9-goe̍h, lē-sio̍k Tē-poeh Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu.

Bîn-kok 34-nî 8-goe̍h 1-ji̍t siat koān, èng Chiu-tun (周墩) kah Lêng-tek (寧德) nn̄g-ê tē-miâ ê thâu-chi̍t-ê jī khí-miâ kiò Chiu-lêng-koān, koān-chèng-hú só͘-chāi-tē tī Sai-siâⁿ (獅城), koán-hat bīn-chek 639.6 pêng-hong kong-lí, lē-sio̍k Tē-poeh Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu (bîn-kok 36-nî 4-goe̍h, kái-chheng Tē-it Hêng-chèng Tok-chhat-khu).

Bîn-kok 37-nî 9-goe̍h, Lêng-tek-koān sek Hâm-sam-hiuⁿ (咸杉鄉) 127.7 pêng-hong kong-lí kui Chiu-lêng-koān koán, choân-koān bīn-chek cheng-ka kàu 767.3 pêng-hong kong-lí.

1949-nî 6goe̍h 28-ji̍t, Chiu-lêng kái-hòng. 9-goe̍h 1-ji̍t, sêng-li̍p Chiu-lêng-koān Jîn-bîn-bîn-chú-chèng-hú. 11-goe̍h 12-ji̍t, sêng-li̍p Chiu-lêng-koān Jîn-bîn-chèng-hú, lē-sio̍k Hok-an Choan-oân Kong-sú.

1955-nî 9goe̍h, Siū-lêng-koān ōe-chhut Tē-la̍k-khu (hiān-chú-sî Sûn-tî-hiuⁿ ê 11 ê hêng-chèng-chhun kah Sì-kiô-hiuⁿ choân-hiuⁿ) bīn-chek 278.7 pêng-hong kong-lí, kui Chiu-lêng-koān koán-hat, choân-koān bīn-chek cheng-ka kàu 1046 pêng-hong kong-lí.

1970-nî 7-goe̍h khí, se-sio̍k Lêng-tek Tē-khu.

Hêng-chèng Khu-ōa[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Lé-mn̂g-hiuⁿ||350925201||Lé-mn̂g, 仕本, 贡川, Toa-pi, 芹源、常源、 秋楼、玉山、大林、Khe-soaⁿ, 梅渡、油湾、Âu-lâng, Tân-siàu, Soaⁿ-thâu, 首洞, Lâi-pîⁿ

Hiuⁿ∕Tìn Hêng-chèng Tāi-bé Chhoan-bîn Úi-oân-hōe, Ku-bîn Úi-oân-hōe, Siā-khu Miâ-chheng
Sai-siâⁿ-tìn 350925100 龙潭、安后、洋尾、坂头、虎岗、前坪、陈凤、洋庄、桥南、长安、中兴、城西、东源、兴福
Âm-chhun-tìn 350925101 Iûⁿ-tiong, Chhoan-tiong, Chiūⁿ-póaⁿ, Âm-iûⁿ, Ûi-mn̂g, Chiam-ke-iûⁿ, Chó-niá, Khò͘-lōa, Ô͘-bit-tē, Chiuⁿ-goân, 碧岩, Lâm-mn̂g-lâu, Mûi-soaⁿ, Pîⁿ-khiⁿ, Chiong-kǹg, Chhiū-m̂-thâi,Ē-khàm, Koân-chià-thâu, Gô͘-tông-khiⁿ, Chhia-pôaⁿ, Khîn-chhun, Tê-kńg, Thong-hā-soaⁿ, Âm-chhun
Pó͘-tau-tìn 350925102 Pó͘-tau, 西坑、五源坑、龙亭、紫云、端源、官司、江源、萌源、khe-pîⁿ, 东升、萌底、Pòaⁿ-niá, 龙住院、进登、Chiūⁿ-iûⁿ, 吴山底
Chhit-pō͘-tìn 350925103 Chhit-pō͘, 登科地、龙溪、桐岔、象运、Poeh-pó͘, Niá-thâu, Āu-iûⁿ, 柿洋、Koeh-iûⁿ, 官洋, Khe-thâu, 宅头, Iûⁿ-thâu, Khiⁿ-mn̂g-té, 徐家山、黄家山、竹下、苏家山、Gô͘-peh-iûⁿ
Lí-tun-tìn 350925104 Lí-tun, Tang-soaⁿ, N̂g-po͘, Tân-chhù, Chè-ē, 际头, Goán-iûⁿ-tiong, Goán-ke-tōng, Lâu-pîⁿ, Khîn-khe
Sûn-tî-tìn 350925105 Sûn-tî, khe-bóe, 祖龙、禾溪、桃坑、桃园、前溪、林源、后溪、莲地、底源、西山、Saⁿ-mn̂g-kiô, 庭洋中、儒源、福山、豪阳、向阳
Sì-kiô-hiuⁿ 350925200 Sì-kiô, Chhiah-gâm, Chiu-tun, Âng-iûⁿ, 坂坑、洋尾弄、常洋、杨厝边、垓窑、下西坑、溪口、下楼
Bé-khiⁿ-hiuⁿ 350925202 Bé-khiⁿ, 升阳, Tang-khiⁿ, Ē-khiⁿ, Chhiah-iûⁿ, 长峰, Sam-iông, 宝岭、紫竹、溪边、沈洋、首章、灵凤山、芹太丘、Hàu-tē

Tē-lí Khoân-kéng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tē-Māu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

周宁地处鹫峰山脉东麓,地势由西北向东南倾斜。境内峰峦起伏、山陡谷深、溪谷错综。境内平均海拔在800米以上,最高点龙岗头,海拔1506米;最低点街头亭,海拔仅65米;县城所在地狮城镇海拔880米。千米以上的高峰282座,县城海拔880米,居福建省之首。

鹫峰山脉的主体部分在境内连绵起伏,形成海拔800米以上的中山地貌、海拔500米以上至800米的低山地貌和海拔500米以下的丘陵地貌。周宁东南部县境距海岸74公里。

地貌有中山、低山、丘陵三大类型,中山占全县土地面积的61%,是用材林和单季稻、牧、茶区;低山占26.7%,是水源涵养林和粮、茶区;丘陵地占12.3%,是双季稻和主要经济作物区。

境内水系发达,天然落差大,水电资源可开发利用大约37万千瓦。

Khì-hāu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiu-lêng-koān sio̍k Tiong-a-jia̍t-tài hái-iûⁿ-sìⁿ kùi-hong soaⁿ-tē khì-hāu, sù-kùi hun-bêng. Kôaⁿ-thiⁿ tn̂g, joa̍h-thiⁿ té, chōe-hō͘. 2010-nî pêng-kin khì-un 15.5℃, ke̍k-toan chòe-koân khì-un 32.9℃, ke̍k-toan chòe-kē khì-un -5.2℃, nî kàng-chúi-liōng 2130.7-hô-bí, kàng-hō͘ thiⁿ-sò͘ 192 kang, ji̍t-chiàu sî-sò͘ 1617-sió-sî. Hái-poa̍t lo̍k-chha sûi-ti̍t chha-ī tōa, jia̍t-liōng chu-goân mā hun-pò͘ chha-ī tōa, hêng-sêng li̍p-thé ê lông-gia̍p khì-hāu. Hái-poa̍t 400-bí i-hā ê khì-hāu kah Tiong-a-jia̍t-tài-hêng saⁿ-sâng, ē-ēng chèng sang-kùi-tiū kah a-jia̍t-tài chúi-kó-chhiū kah kî-tha keng-chè chok-bu̍t. Te̍k-pia̍t sī tī hái-poa̍t 200-bí i-hā ê te-khiu-tē-khu, bô-sng-kî tn̂g, oa̍t-tang tiâu-kiāⁿ hó, sī Chiu-lêng-koān jia̍t-liōng chu-goân ê chòe-hó ê só͘-chāi. Hái-poa̍t 400 kàu 850-bí ê ko-khiu, te-soaⁿ-tē-khu, jia̍t-liōng kah pak-a-jia̍t-tài saⁿ-sâng, ē-ēng chèng khah m̄-kiaⁿ-kôaⁿ ê a-jia̍t-tài chúi-kó-chhiū kah ko-sò͘-chit ê tê-hio̍h. 850-bí í-siōng ê tiong-soaⁿ tē-khu, jia̍t-liōng tiâu-kiāⁿ kah lâm-un-tài saⁿ-sâng, sī phiah-sú-san-chong kiàn-siat, kho-ki-lâu, chok-ka-chhù téng-téng lú-iû-gia̍p ê khai-hoat lī-iōng, thê-kiong liông-hó ê khì-hāu chu-goân.

Chiu-lêng-koān hō͘-liōng chhiong-phài, chúi-hun chu-goân chhiong-chiok, lông-chok-bu̍t seng-tióng-kùi (khì-un 10-tō͘ í-siōng) pêng-kin hō͘-liōng ta̍t 1300 kàu 1600 hô-bí. Mûi-ú kah hong-thai kùi-chiat ū-sî ū pok-hō͘.

Chū-jiân Chu-goân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Khòng-sán[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

周宁历史上曾有过银、铁采炼,已探明矿藏有16种,主要有明矾石、珍珠岩、高岭土、稀土、花岗石料、矿泉水及钨、铁、钼、铅、锌、银等矿藏地27处,其中:中小型矿床7个,矿石20个,各类矿化点28个。在储矿藏中,已探明珍珠岩储量61.24吨、明矾石储量251.2万吨、高岭土储量1079万吨、泥煤储量23.5万吨。潜在矿种有银、花岗石料、叶腊石等。

Chhiū-nâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

内森林植被属于常绿温暖照叶林地带。植被有12个类型,46个群丛,有大量的药用植物和禽兽类资源,虽经历几次较大幅度的消长过程,仍不失原貌。

1973年起,先后进行3次森林资源调查。至1987年,全县森林林分年平均总生长量由7.17万立方米提高到7.19万立方米,以马尾松、杉木人工林为主的针叶树种,分布广、生长快、产量高,林相整齐,构成新型的植被类型。[4] 境内林业用地为典型的地带性特征,主要为红壤和黄壤,分布在中山、低山、丘陵地带。1981年林业区划,进行第一次全县林地土壤普查,计有林业用地120万亩,占土地总面积的76.48%,划分为3个土类,8个亚类,17个土属。在各类土壤面积中,红壤795639亩,占林业用地66.35%;黄壤376590亩,占31.41%;紫色土26881亩,占2.24%。全县林业用地土壤均属酸性,其中:一类地面积837564亩,占土类面积的69.8%,主要土类有黄壤、黄红壤、暗红壤、水花红壤、红壤等,多分布在礼门、李墩、浦源、纯池等低丘地段;二类地面积358099亩,占土类面积29.9%,主要土类为粗骨红壤、粗骨黄壤、紫色土,多分布在礼门、七步、咸村、浦源、玛坑的高丘地段;三类土地面积3447亩,占总面积的0.3%,主要土类是粗骨红壤,分布在七步、咸村、玛坑等地的山脊、山顶及陡坡地段;有少量分布在溪河两岸、山顶、山脊上的岩石裸露地为四类地。

1987年,全县林业用地面积1187832亩,占土地总面积的75.7%。[5]

Keng-tē[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

民国时期,耕地面积以主产物收获量折算,茶园与农地混合,面积失实。民国31年(1942年),编查耕地面积合计为11.06万亩。民国34年经复查核实,耕地总面积为10.84万亩。民国37年9月,宁德县咸村划归周宁,全县耕地总面积为16.92万亩,农业人均2.31亩。

建国后,经过土地改革和农业合作化运动,农民生产积极性高,陆续开垦耕地。至1956年全县耕地增至18.39万亩,农业人均2.28亩。1960年经济困难时期,部分边远耕地抛荒,1963年陆续垦复耕作。此后,由于国家和社、队兴修水利、建设公路、办工厂、农村基建、机关单位建房以及其他占用等,1979年,全县只剩耕地14.50万亩,农业人均1.12亩,与1956年比,减3.89万亩。1980年后,贯彻《土地法》,对耕地实行依法管理,制止滥占耕地。1988年,全县耕地面积增至14.71万亩,但由于人口增加,农业人均却降至1.02亩。

据农业区划普查,1980年全县水田10万亩,农地4.5万亩,合计耕地14.5万亩。耕地地处海拔800米以上的占59.59%,500至800米的占26.43%,500米以下的占13.98%。水田中分布在溪谷平地田占15.26%,缓坡地山垅田占32.17%,梯田占47.14%,溪岸边田占5.44%;农地中,处于25度以上坡地占17.40%,15至25度山地占32.70%,6至15度缓坡地占41.60%,6度以下占8.30%。

耕地土壤类型分布,水田中,渗育型占53.46%,潴育型占29.88%,潜育型占16.66%;农地中,红土占41.45%,黄泥土占55.02%,紫色土占2.25%,冲积土占1.29%。

水田有机质和磷、钾含量状况为,缺磷、缺钾面积分别占水田总面积的92.3%和67.66%。内涵冷烂酸锈毒等低产障碍因素的中、低产田面积多达7.8万亩,占水田总面积78%。[6]

Jîn-kháu kah Bîn-cho̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Jîn-kháu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiu-lêng-koān kéng-lāi jîn-kháu hun-pò͘ bô pêng-kin, khe-liû nn̄g-hoaⁿ phûn-tē jîn-kháu khah chōe, khah koân khah hn̂g ê soaⁿ-khu jîn-kháu khah chió.

Bîn-kok 34-nî (1.945), choân-koān jîn-kháu 48057 lâng, thó͘-tē bīn-chek 639.6 pêng-hong kong-lí, jîn-kháu bi̍t-tō͘ múi pêng-hong kong-lí 75.1 lâng.

Kiàn-kok liáu-āu, jîn-kháu bi̍t-tō͘ bān-bān piàn-chōe. Àn-chiàu múi pêng-hong kong-lí pêng-kin jîn-sò͘ lâi kè-sǹg, 1954-nî 77.7 lâng, 1964-nî tē-jī-pái jîn-kháu phó͘-cha sî 94 lâng, 1982-nî tē-saⁿ-pái jîn-kháu phó͘-cha sî 139 lâng, 1988-nî seng kàu 150 lâng, kî-tiong Sai-siâⁿ-tìn jîn-kháu bi̍t-tō͘ chòe-chè, ta̍t-kàu 407lâng, Sûn-tî-hiuⁿ chòe-chió nā-ū 100 lâng.

Bîn-cho̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiu-lêng tōa-pō͘-hūn sī hàn-cho̍k. Kái-hòng chêng sió-sò͘-bîn-cho̍k kan-na ū siâ-cho̍k. Àn-chiàu 1953-nî jîn-kháu phó͘-cha, choân-koān hàn-cho̍k 62984 lâng, chiàm chóng-jîn-kháu ê 98.98%; siâ-cho̍k 646 lâng, chiàm 1.02%. Āu-piah, in-ūi kang-chok, hun-in, thàn-chîⁿ téng-téng ê goan-in, ū kî-tha sió-sò͘-bîn-cho̍k chhian-ji̍p. 1982-nî jîn-kháu phó͘-cha sî, choân-koān hàn-cho̍k 143754 lâng, chiàm chóng-jîn-kháu ê 99.01%; sió-sò͘-bîn-cho̍k 7 ê, chóng-kiōng 1438 lâng, chiàm 0.99%. Kî-tiong siâ-cho̍k 1407 lâng, chòng-cho̍k 19 lâng, biô-cho̍k 6 lâng, ko-san-cho̍k 3 lâng, bán-cho̍k, hôe-cho̍k, î-cho̍k kak 1 lâng. Kah 1964-nî jîn-kháu phó͘-cha siong-tùi-pí, hàn-cho̍k jîn-kháu cheng-ka 45989 lâng, cheng-tióng 47.04%; sió-sò͘-bîn-cho̍k jîn-kháu cheng-ka 472 lâng, cheng-ka 48.86%.

Hàn-cho̍k jîn-kháu phiàn-pò͘ choân-koān kak-tē, siâ-cho̍k jîn-kháu chú-iàu tiàm-tī Sai-siâⁿ, Âm-chhun (Hâm-chhun), Bé-khiⁿ, Chhit-pō͘ téng 4 ê hiuⁿ-tìn ê 26 ê chū-jiân-chhun. Kî-tiong ÂM-chhun-tìn (Hâm-chhun-tìm) ê Ûi-mn̂g-chhun (Ûn-bûn-chhun) siat-ū siâ-cho̍k chhun-úi-hōe.

Keng-chè Khài-hóng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thé-chè iân-kek[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

封建社会到民国时期,境内经济体制属封建私有制。农村封建势力占有大量土地,残酷剥削农民;城镇,私营工商业不发达,手工业者和个体商贩仅能维持生计。这种生产关系严重阻碍着社会生产力的发展。

建国初期,进行农村土地改革,1956年通过农业合作化和对手工业、私营工商业的社会主义改造,逐步形成以国营、集体为主的多种经济体制,促进社会生产力的发展。

1958年人民公社化直至“文化大革命”结束,实行政社合一高度集中的计划经济体制,限制了集体、个体经济的发展,社会生产在曲折道路上徘徊。

中共十一届三中全会后,从农村到城镇,在农业、工业、商业等领域推行经济体制改革,逐步建立计划与市场相结合的社会主义商品经济体制和运行机制,国有、集体、个体经济得到迅速发展。[9]

Le̍k-sú hoat-tián[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

民国时期,周宁经济落后,市场萧条,劳动人民生活贫困,国民经济以农业为主,粮食居第一位,茶叶居第二位。粮食生产,以水稻为主,甘薯为次,大小麦、杂粮、马铃薯占小部分。经济作物以茶叶为主,其次是花生、油菜籽、黄麻、芋麻、甘蔗、晒烟等,但数量极少。林业主要是松、杉、竹及薪炭林。手工业仅有茶叶加工、铸锅等。1949年,全县社会总产值为664.52万元。

解放后,周宁经济有长足发展,但经历过曲折的过程。

三年经济恢复时期(1950~1952年),通过减租反霸、土地改革运动,同时采取有力措施,帮助手工业和私营商业解决产、供、销等问题,国民经济全面恢复并初步发展。1952年,工农业总产值达1006万元,平均年递增16.01%,其中工业总产值年平均增K37.06%,农业总产值年平均增长13.19%;国民生产总值908万元,年平均递增21.15%;社会总产值1059万元,年平均递增16.8%;国民收入806.97万元,年均递增16.4%;粮食产量19077吨,年均递增18.1%;生猪年末存栏11001头,年均递增17.5%;茶叶产量372吨,年均递增11.9%。

“一五”计划时期(1953~1957年),随着经济形势的好转,县设立计划统计机构,下达生产、基建、流通计划,编制五年长期发展计划,把全县国民经济和社会发展纳入计划经济轨道,逐步加强计划管理。实行粮食计划收购和计划供应,实行农业、于工业和私营工商业的社会主义改造,促进工农业生产迅速发展。1957年,全县工农业总产值达1572万元,平均每年递增9.33%,其中工业总产值年均递增18.23%;农业总产值年均递增7.21%;国民生产总值1377万元,年均递增8.68%;社会总产值1719万元,年均递增10.17%;国民收入1186万元,年均递增8%。主要产品产量:粮食24672吨,年均递增5.28%;生猪存栏15691头,年均递增7.36%;茶叶产量444吨,年均递增3.6%。 “二五”计划时期(1958~1962年),掀起“大跃进”和人民公社化运动。在“共产风”、浮夸风和生产瞎指挥的折腾下,工业盲目上马,农村大办公共食堂,无偿抽调大批劳力伐木烧炭炼钢铁,造成农业连年歉收。加上连续三年高征购,致使社员人均口粮下降到120公斤,出现了浮肿病和非正常死亡现象。

1961年,贯彻国民经济“调整、巩固、充实、提高”方针和《农村人民公社工作条例(草案)》、《国营工业企业工作条例(草案)》后,开始纠正“共产风”,停办农村公共食堂,实行冬种自由一季,减少粮食征购任务,缩短基建战线,砍掉一批工业企业。1962年,全面实行以生产队为基本核算单位,农业生产才开始回升,工业生产也走上正轨。当年,全县粮食总产16444吨, 比1957年减产33.35%,茶叶产量下降到217吨,比1957年减产51%;工业生产前三年在数字上体现大幅度增产,但实质上毫无经济效益。1962年,

工农业总产值下降到1054万元,与1957年比,每年递减7.68%;国民收入327万元,递减7%;社会总产值1413万元,年递减3.9%。

三年调整时期(1963~1965年),继续贯彻“调整、巩固、充实、提高”八字方针,国民经济逐步回升,粮食取得较好收成,工农业产值有所增长,但仍未恢复到“一五”期末的水平。1965年工农业总产值达1294万元,年均递增7.07%,其中工业总产值年均递减1.17%;农业总产值年均递增8.67%;国民生产总值1451万元,年均递增9.5%;国民收入1018万元,年均递增7.17%;社会总产值1631万元,年均递增4.9%;粮食总产量22554吨,年均递增11.1%;茶叶产量292吨,年均递增10.3%。 “三五”计划时期(1966~1970年),处在“文化大革命”前期,各级领导机构基本瘫痪,全县的经济建设和生产秩序遭受破坏,国民经济受到挫折,农业生产处于自发状态,工业生产徘徊不前,商品流通渠道阻塞,人民日常生活用品紧缺。1967年工农业总产值比上年下降0.77%。1968年又比1967年下降6.45%,其中工业产值下降17.17%,粮食减产4.61%。1968年4月成立县革命委员会,各级领导机构相继建立,强调“抓革命,促生产”,经济形势和生产秩序逐步恢复正常。1970年全县工农业总产值1716万元,平均每年递增5.8%,其中工业总产值年均递增10%,农业总产值年均递增5.07%;社会总产值2018万元,年均递增4.35%;国民收入1280万元,年均递增4.6%;国民生产总值1721万元,年均递增3.47%;粮食总产量30375吨,年均递增6.13%;茶叶总产量469吨,年均递增9.9%。

“四五”计划时期(1971~1975年),经济建设虽受“文化大革命”动乱影响,但与全国对比相对稳定。全县开展农田基本建设,粮食征购实行一定五年,并兴办一批工业企业。1971~1975年,全县工农业总产值年均递增8.64%,其中工业总产值年均递增23.59%,农业总产值年均递增4.35%。期末粮食总产34694吨,年均递增2.69%;茶叶总产量731吨,年均递增9.3%。 “五五”计划时期(1976~1980年),粉碎江青反革命集团,特别是中共十一届三中全会后,纠正长期以来“左”的错误,放宽农村经济政策,鼓励社员积极发展多种经营;工业企业内部进行全面整顿,改进经营管理,减少指令性计划,地方工业产品开始以销定产,实行指导性计划管理,生产力发展加快,经济面貌迅速改观。1980年,工农业总产值达4119.93万元,比1975年增长58.59%,平均每年递增9.66%,其中工业总产值1749.93万元,年均递增16.07%,农业总产值2370万元,年均递增6.04%;社会总产值5479.30万元,年均递增11.7%;国民生产总值3390万元,年均递增9.75%;国民收入2772.16万元,年均递增10.60%;粮食总产量40519吨,年均递增3.2%;茶叶总产量965吨,年均递增5.7%。 “六五”和“七五”(1981~1988年) 农村实行家庭联产承包责任制,调整农业结构,改农产品统购为合同订购。发展开发性生产,鼓励劳务输出,允许部分勤劳、守法的农民先富起来。全县建立了粮、林、茶、畜、菌五个一百户,进行开发性生产典型示范,工业生产普遍推行厂长负责制和多种形式的经济承包责任制,进一步增强企业的经营管理自主权,大部分企业逐步由过去的生产型向生产经营型转变,充分挖掘潜力,调动广大职工的积极性。乡镇工业企业和个体工业蓬勃发展,工业生产持续发展。

1988年全县工农业总产值达7929.2万元,比1980年增长92.45%,年均递增8.52%。其中:工业总产值4497.2万元,年均递增12.52%,国营工业企业全员劳动生产率提高38.62%;农业总产值3432万元,年均递增4.74%,农产品商品率达43.3%;社会总产值9555万元,年均递增7.2%;国民收入4867万元,年均递增7.29%;国民生产总值6922万元,年均递增9.33%。主要农产品:粮食总产量45565吨,年均递增1.48%;茶叶产量1321吨,年均递增4.0。[10] 2011年实现地区生产总值330217万元,按2010年不变价格计算,比2010年增长11.7%。分行业看,第一产业增加值59734万元,增长5.1%;第二产业增加值165457万元,增长17.9%;第三产业增加值105026万元,增长6.6%,三次产业全面发展。分季度看,2011年一季度增长11.6%,2011年上半年增长12.0%,2011年前三季度增长11.3%,全年增长11.7%,增速总体呈现平稳增长。按常住人口计算,人均地区生产总值29749元,比2011年上年增长16.6%。 产业结构继续调整。与2010年相比,第一产业和第二产业比重略增,第三产业比重下降。三次产业比例由上年的17.9:47.6::34.5调整为18.1:50.1::31.8。 2011年农林牧渔业总产值98898万元。2011年上半年增长5.2%。其中,农业产值61720万元,增长1.4%;林业产值14375万元,同比增长28.2%;牧业产值12302万元,同比增长6.2%;渔业产值6562万元,同比增长4.6%;农林牧副渔服务业产值3940万元,增长4.2%。

农作物播种面积198669亩,比2010年增加4003亩,增长2.1%。其中,粮食播种面积120980亩,比2010年增加694亩,增长0.6%;蔬菜、瓜果类种植面积73186亩,增加3376亩,增长4.8%。 2011年植树造林总面积9.06万亩,占省下达任务的109.2%。其中人工造林更新面积3.17万亩,人工促进天然更新面积1.08万亩。全县织组织大小义务植树活动27次,1万余人参加义务植树,栽植苗木3.5万株完成义务植数39万株。全县共育苗1577亩,容器育苗240多万株。共发放林木采伐证146份,出材量6000立方米;毛竹采伐证31份,采伐毛竹22540根。主要林产品产量:油桐籽产量85吨,增长18.1%;竹笋干332 吨,增长5.1%;板栗1350吨,增长24.0%;棕片160吨,增长7.4%;山苍籽45吨,增长15.4%。

全年肉蛋总产量5477吨,比2010年增长7.6%。其中,肉类产量4663吨,增长7.5%;禽蛋814吨,增长8.0%。生猪出栏数53860头,增长5.8%,存栏数39417头,增长5.0%;羊出栏数7118头,增长16.4%,存栏数8400头,增长2.9%;兔存栏42213只,增长2.4%;家禽存栏数33.77万只,增长2.7%。

渔业养殖面积1.935万亩,水产品产量1640吨,比上年增长4.1%。

全县2011年末拥有农业机械总动力 4.23万千瓦,比上年增长3.0%;农用拖拉机171台,农用运输车650辆。

全县2011年实现工业增加值137858万元,比上年增长16.3%,对经济增长的贡献率达56.3%。其中规模以上工业增加值111817万元,增长11.5%。

工业总产值471432万元,比2010年增长13.1%。其中,规模以上工业企业完成总产值415786万元,增长13.2%。

规模以上工业企业30家,产值占全社会工业总产值的比重由上年的86.2%提高到88.2%。在规模以上工业中,国有企业实现产值15983万元,增长0.1%;股份制企业产值395701万元,增长25.5%;外商及港澳台投资企业产值2482万元,下降2.9%;其他企业产值535万元,下降11.8%。轻工业产值41660万元,增长18.8%;重工业产值374125万元,占90.0%,增长24.2%。

Sán-phín siau-lō͘ iā-hó. 2011-nî oân-sêng siau-siū sán-ta̍t 415147-bān kho͘, cheng-tióng 24.8%; kang-gia̍p-phín siau-siū-lu̍t ta̍t 99.9%, pí téng-nî tông-kî ke 1.0%. Kang-gia̍p-phín sán-liōng ū cheng-ka ū kiám-chió, kî-tiong hoat-tiān-liōng hā-kàng 49.3%, chù-kiāⁿ cheng-tióng 32.6%, cheng-chè tê-hio̍h cheng-tióng 25.9%, Ou-cheng-khòng (鎢精礦 cheng-tióng 7.0-pōe-su.

Kau-thong Ūn-su[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

1959-nî í-chêng, choân-koān ê ūn-su ki-pún sī khò lâng taⁿ.

1959-nî 5-ge̍h, Sió-phó͘ (Sió-kó͘-tìn kàu Phó͘-siâⁿ) kong-lō͘ Sài-phó͘ (Sài-kiâ kàu Phó͘-siâⁿ) toān thong-chhia. Sió-phó͘ kong-lō͘ Sài-phó͘ toān thong-chhia liáu-āu, khì-chhia kah kî-tha ki-tōng-chhia bān-bān chhú-tāi jîn-le̍k lâi ūn-su. Tong-nî nî-tóe, tī "Kiōng-sán-hong" ē éng-hióng ē, choân-koān bô-siông tiàu-ēng lô-le̍k kah bu̍t-chu, cho͘-chit bîn-kang kah ki-kang 5092 lâng, tâu-kiàn Lê-pîⁿ kàu gōa-piáu, siâⁿ-koan kàu Sûn-tî, Chhit-pō͘ kau Lí-tun 3 tiâu kong-lō͘, in-ūi tong-sî kok-bîn keng-chè khùn-lân, hun-pia̍t tī 1960-nî 4-ge̍h kah 1961-nî 2-ge̍h thêng-kiàn.

1965-nî tang-thiⁿ, cho͘-chit choân-koān bîn-kang kè-siok kiàn-siat, kóng-tāi kàn-pō͘ kûn-chiòng bô-koán Bûn-hòa Tōa-kek-bēng ê éng-hióng, kian-chhî kiàn-siat.

1965-nî kàu 1976-nî, siān-hiō kiàn-sêng kong-lō͘ 8-tiâu 105.43 kong-lí (bē pau-khoat Mâ-niá kun-ēng kong-lō͘). Si̍t-hiān choân-koān thong kong-lō͘. Kong-lō͘ iân-sòaⁿ chhoan-bîn khai-sí í pán-chhia ūn mi̍h-kiāⁿ, í kha-ta̍h-chhia tāi-pō͘.

1983-nî í-āu, chhia-liōng khai-sí tōa-liōng cheng-ka, kong-lō͘ chhut-hiān--liáu hō͘-siong kēng-cheng ê kéng-siōng. Khah-khoah khah-sóng, ko-hāu koh-khah chiat-lêng ê sin-hêng chhia-liōng bān-bān khai-sí lâu-ji̍p chhī-tiûⁿ.

1988-nî nî-té, choân-koān chóng-kiōng ū kong-lō͘ 32-tiâu, chóng-tn̂g 301.3 kong-lí. Pêng-kin múi chi̍t-pah pêng-hong kong-lí ū kong-lō͘ 28.8 kong-lí, thong-chhia--liáu ê hêng-chèng-chhun 86-ê, chiàm choân-koān hêng-chèng-chhun sò͘-liōng ê 61.4%, chho͘-pō͘ hêng-sêng í Sai-siâⁿ ûi tiong-sim ê kong-lō͘ kau-thong-bāng. Hok-chiu, Phó͘-siâⁿ, Siāu-bú, Sūn-chhiong, Lâm-pêng, Hâ-phó͘ kah Chiat-kang Chiong-lâm, ké-ū tong-ji̍t ti̍t-ta̍t kheh-chhia, thiat-té kái-piàn--liáu tn̂g-kî kau-thong bô-hong-piān ê lo̍k-hō͘ bīn-māu. Tān-sī m̄-koh koh-ū phian-oán soaⁿ-khu chhun kau-thong koh-sī bô-hong-piān, mi̍h-kiāⁿ iû-goân sī lâng jîn-le̍k lâi taⁿ.

2012-nî, Lêng-siōng ko-sok Chiu-lêng toān thong-chhia, chhut-hêng lú-lâi-lú-hong-piān.

Bûn-hòa[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Gí-giân[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiu-lêng-ōe sio̍k-û í hok-chiu-ōe ûi tāi-piáu ê bân-tang hong-giân pak-phiàn, kéng-lāi thong-hêng ê sī koān-siâⁿ Sai-siâⁿ-tīn kháu-im ûi tāi-piáu ê chiu-lêng-ōe. Chiu-lêng-koān kiàn-koān í-chêng (1935-nî) siat-ū Chiu-tun te̍k-chéng-khu (周墩特种区), só͘-í chiu-lêng-ōe mā kiò-chòe chiu-tun-ōe (周墩话). Le̍k-sú-siōng, Chiu-lêng in-ūi phian-phiah, kah séng-siâⁿ Hok-chiu thài-hn̄g, ka-siōng kau-thong bô-piān, kah gōa-tē ê chiap-chhiok bô-hong-piān, tong-tē hong-giân í-keng kah Hok-chiu-ōe ū khah-chōe ê khu-pia̍t, siong-tùi kah hok-an-ōe khah chiap-kīn. In-chhú, chiu-lêng-ōe kah bân-tang pak-phiàn ê tē-hong-ōe kâng-khoán, chi̍t-hong-biān pí lâm-phiàn ê hok-chiu-ōe pó-liû koh-khah-chōe ê kó͘-hàn-gí te̍k-tiám, tong-sî ū ka-kī pún-sin ê te̍k-sek.

周宁县特殊的地理、历史状况在语言方面也有一定的反映。这主要表现在两个方面:首先是境内各地口音多有差别。周宁县为鹫峰山脉主体部分,境内地势从西北向东南倾斜,千米山峰遍布全境,多数村落座落在崇山峻岭与盆谷之间,山川阻隔、交际困难,便形成种种语言的殊调异腔,但各地大体上尚能通话,且各种土腔都以狮城音为代表,求大同而存小异。其次是县境四周有不少乡、村土语受到邻县方言的影响或渗透。例如县西北的泗桥乡与北面的纯池乡,历史上曾一度隶属政和县与寿宁县,这两个乡中均有部分村落说政和话;纯池乡的豪洋、莲地、纯池等自然村的土语,则带有浓重的寿宁腔;县境东南部的咸村乡、玛坑乡大部分村落分别受宁德霍童话与福安穆阳话的影响和渗透。此外,境内还有一些畲族居住点,这些畲族人内部使用接近客家话的畲话交际,与当地汉族人交往,则仍使用周宁话。

Ím-sit[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chú-si̍t: kái-hòng chêng, lông-bîn chú-si̍t sī tōa-bí, han-chî-bí, bô-chîⁿ-lâng í han-chî-bí chò chú-si̍t. Kái-hòng liáu-āu, jîn-bîn ê seng-oa̍h bān-bān piàn-hó, í tōa-bí chò chú-si̍t, chham-cha̍p han-chî-bí. 80 nî-tāi, si̍t-hêng lông-gia̍p seng-sán ke-têng sêng-pau chek-jīm-chè liáu-āu, niû-si̍t ta̍k-nî cheng-sán, tōa-pō͘-hūn lông-bîn chú-iàu chia̍h tōa-bí, ū-sî chia̍h mī-hún si̍t-phín, han-chî-bí ēng-lâi chhī-ti.

Chhài-soe: Koān-lâi chhài-soe phín-chéng chú-iàu ū kòa-chhài, chhài-thâu, iû-chhài, hoe-pân-chhài, èng-chhài, âng-thâu-chhài (pe-lêng-chhài), 牛皮菜, pe̍h-chhài, 芥蓝包, 萁菜, khîn-chhài, hēng-chhài, kú-chhài, 魔芋, soaⁿ-ō͘, chhân-ō͘-á, chî, sù-kùi-tāu, píⁿ-tāu, tn̂g-tāu, 玉豆, n̂g-tāu, bí-tāu, iûⁿ-chhiu-tau, kiô (âng-chhài), pe̍h-pû, tang-koe, chhài-koe, khó͘-koe, ha̍p-chióng-koe (chióng-koe), kim-chiam, mâ-sún, kaⁿ-sún (kau-pe̍h kah kiuⁿ, soàn-thâu, pak-chhang, loa̍h-chio téng. Lông-bîn chhù nā-sī chhiⁿ-chhài khah-chē, he̍k-chiá sī pha̍k--seng chhài-koaⁿ, he̍k-chiá sī ka-iâm sīⁿ hó, kiò-chòe àng-chhài, siông-nî khó-í chia̍h.

Chúi-kó: Chú-iàu ū lâi-á, thô-á, kaⁿ, khī-á, chui, chhiū-m̂, kaⁿ-ná, pî-pê. Kûn-chiòng chia̍h-ê kaⁿ kah pêng-kó téng chúi-kó chú-iàu-sī gōa-tē ji̍p--lâi ê.

Chiú: Kū-sî kûn-chiòng chhù-lāi ka-kī kek n̂g-chiú, pe̍h-chiú (pe̍h-sio), han-chî-chiú. Kái-hòng liáu-āu, koān chiú-chhiúⁿ seng-sán hó͘-kut-bo̍k-koe-chiú, pe̍h-chu̍t-chiú, tîn-lâi-chiú (猕猴桃酒) téng. Kî-tha chiú ké-sī tùi gōa-tē ín-chìn ê.

Hong-kéng Bêng-sèng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bêng-sèng-kó͘-chiah ū lí-hî-khoe, káu-liông-chià pho̍k-pò͘-kûn, tih-chúi-gâm, lêng-hong-sī, pián-hok-tōng, khîn-soaⁿ-ô͘, sian-hōng-soaⁿ, āu-lâng-khoe tōa-kiap-kok, chheng-nî kó͘-sat lêng-hong-sī, goân-tāi khiā-ê hong-kóng-sī, chio̍h-mn̂g-soaⁿ, koaⁿ-soaⁿ, Poeh-pô͘ liông-chíⁿ, kì-liām-tē ū tiong-kiōng bân-tang te̍k-úi kū-chí, tiong-kiōng chiu-tun tiong-sim koān-úi sêng-li̍p-tē kū-chí, tōa-chêng-pîⁿ âng-kun siu-hâi-só͘ kū-chí.

Lú-iû chu-goân hong-hù. Keng-lāi ū hái-kiap sai-hōaⁿ tē-it ê Káu-liông-chià pho̍k-pò͘-kûn, ū "Tiong-hôa kî-koan" ê Lí-hî-khoe, nn̄g-ê kéng-tiám sī "Tiong-kok oân-bí ká-kî 10-ka lú-iû sòaⁿ-lō͘" ê tē-saⁿ-miâ, sī "Bân-tang-pak chhin-chúi-iû" sòaⁿ-lō͘ ê tiōng-iàu chó͘-sêng pō͘-hūn. Ū chài-ji̍p "Sû-hái" ê "8-bân siú-kéng" ê Tih-chúi-gâm. Ū séng-kip chhiū-nâ Sian-hong-soaⁿ, ū pu̍t-kàu sèng-tē Hong-kóng-sī, chheng-nî kó͘-sat Lêng-hong-sī, jîn-kang-ô͘ Khîn-soaⁿ-ô͘, bân-tang ê Se-siang-pán-la̍p Āu-lâng-tōa-kiap-kok kah pián-hok-tōng téng-téng chit-phoe ū-miâ ê lú-iû kéng-tiám, sī Hôa-tang tē-khu ê lú-iû sèng-tē.

Lí-hî-khoe[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Lí-hî-khoe (鯉魚溪) tī Chiu-lêng-koān siâⁿ-koan sai-pêng 5 kong-lí hn̂g ê Pó͘-tau-chhun (Pó͘-goân-chhun) tiong, sī chi̍t-ê 4A kip kéng-khu. Chhun lāi-bīn lâng ké m̄-chiah lí-hî, hó-hó pó-hō͘ lí-hî. Kàu lí-hî sì liáu-āu, lâng chìn-hêng gî-sit, chiong lí-hî sàng-ji̍p khì chi̍t-ê lí-hî-bōng lāi-piah. Lâng kah lí-hî hô-hâi chòe-tīn seng-oa̍h.

Káu-liông-chià Pho̍k-pò͘-kûn[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Káu-liông-chià pho̍k-pò͘-kûn (九龍漈瀑布群), pho̍k-pò͘ chóng lo̍h-chha 300-gōa bí, lâng-chheng "Hôa-tang tē-it, choân-kok chió-ū". 1987-nî teng-kì--ji̍p tē-it-phoe séng-kip hong-kéng-bêng-sèng-khu. 2013-nî 8-goe̍h hō͘ choân-kok lú-iû kéng-khu chit-liōng phêng-tēng úi-oân-hōe phoe-chún ûi kok-ka 4A-kip lú-iû-kéng-khu. Tē-it-kip pho̍k-pò͘ siōng-kài chòng-koan, koân 46.7 bí, khoah 76 bí, hong-súi-kî khó͘-í ta̍t-kàu 83 bí. Téng-thâu ū chi̍t-ê ti̍t-kèng 14-bí ê khut-á hō͘-lâng kiò-chòe "liông-gán". Tē-la̍k-kip kàu tē-káu-kip siong-liân, lâng-chheng "sì-tia̍p-pho̍k".

Thah-soaⁿ Kong-hn̂g[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thah-soaⁿ kong-hn̂g (塔山公園) tī tang-pō͘ ê chio̍h-sún-kǹg (石筍崗) téng, hái-poa̍t 980-bí, tâu-ji̍p 527 bān-kho͘, 2004 nî-thâu chùn-kang. Thah-soaⁿ kong-hn̂g lî koān-siâⁿ 1.5 kong-lí, kui-ōe bīn-chek 330-bió (22 bān pêng-hong kong-lí), sī koān-siâⁿ tang-tōa-mn̂g ê chú-iàu kéng-koan chi-it. 2005-nî Thah-soaⁿ kong-hn̂g hāng-bo̍k lia̍t-ji̍p 60 chiu-nî koān-khèng hāng-bo̍k hoān-tiû, tâu-ji̍p 100 bān-kho͘, kiàn-sêng khám-á (280-kip), soaⁿ-mn̂g kóng-tiûⁿ téng-téng. Kun-kù kui-ōe, Thah-soaⁿ kong-hn̂g kéng-tiám lō͘-sòaⁿ 3000-bí, koàn-chhoan 8-ê chú-iàu jîn-bûn kéng-tiám, àn-chiàu chhek-soàn, Thah-soaⁿ kong-hn̂g hāng-bo̍k tio̍h tâu-chu 1000 bān-kho͘, kî-tiong cheng-tē-khoán 600 bān-kho͘, kiàn-siat chu-kim 400 bān-kho͘.

Tân-siàu Oan-iuⁿ-khoe[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Oan-iuⁿ-khoe tī Tih-chúi-gâm lâm-pêng 10-gōa kong-lí ê Tân-chhiò-chhun āu-piah, lî koān-siâⁿ tāi-khài 40 kong-lí, kah Pêng-lâm-koān ê 郑山宜洋村 kâng chit-tiâu khoe keh-kài. Khoe-thâu chiū-sī Pêng-lâm Oan-iuⁿ-khoe kok-ka-kip chū-jiân-pó-hō͘-khu.

Khu-lāi khoe-liû pîⁿ-pîⁿ, chúi iā chheng, khoe-hōaⁿ sī tek-nâ kah koàn-bo̍k. Múi-nî chhiu-āu, oan-iuⁿ poe-lâi oa̍t-tang, pêng-sî chúi-chiáu iá-ah tī chit-liah chhōe-chiah, chiān-chúi. Soaⁿ-téng mî-kâu sêng-kûn, chōe sî chi̍t-ê soaⁿ-thâu ū kúi-pah thâu. Lēng-gōa koh-ū niau-pà, , kiuⁿ, soaⁿ-iûⁿ, soaⁿ-ti, pe̍h-hân, tī-koe téng-téng chōe-chéng ê iá-seng tōng-bu̍t chhut-ji̍p kî-kan.

Chit-liah kí-sī tin-kî iá-seng tōng-bu̍t ê ke̍k-lo̍k-sè-kài, iā-sī hong-kéng péng súi ê iû-lám-khu. Āu-lâng-chhun (後壟村) tī Tih-chúi-gâm ê lâm-pêng, sī Chiu-lêng, Chéng-hô, Pêng-lâm ê kek-bēng lāu-kun-kù-tē, í-keng khai-thong liáu chhia-lō͘. Āu-lâng-khoe hong-kéng-khu ê hiān-chōng khó͘-í ēng "Chhim-san-lō-lîm" sì-ê jī lâi piáu-sut, kî-gâm-ī-se̍k si-koe choân-sī, goân-sí chhiū-nâ pó-hō͘ iā-hó.

Chit-tiâu khoe mā-sī Hòe-tâng-khoe ê tiōng-iàu chi-liû chi-it.

Tih-chúi-gâm[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tih-chúi-gâm hong-kéng-khu (滴水岩-) tī Chiu-lêng-koān sai-lâm-pêng 30 kong-lí ê Tōng-keng-soaⁿ (洞宮山) soaⁿ-kha, kah Lí-hî-khe, Káu-lêng-chià Pho̍k-pò͘-kûn sâng sâng chhut-miâ, miâ ū hō͘ "Sû-hái" (辭海) siu-lo̍k.

Lîm-kong-keng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Lîm-kong-keng (林公宮) tī Chiu-lêng-koān Bé-khiⁿ-hiuⁿ Sam-iông-chhun. Chheng-tiâu ka-khèng 17-nî (1811-nî) khiā--ê. Chheng-tiâu Tō-kong 15-nî (1835-nî) tiông-siu. Chè-sū--ê sī Lîm-kong Tiong-pêng-ông. Keng chiàm-tōe bīn-chek tāi-khài ū 100 pêng-hong-bí. Chō lâm hiòng pak, ū mn̂g-lâu, hì-tâi kah tōa-tiān. Tōa-tiān bīn khoah 3 keng, chìn chhim 3 keng. Lāi-piah ū "Se-iû-kì" ê piah-tô͘. Pó-chûn ū chheng-tiâu tông-tī 12-nî (1873-nî) thih téng() 1 chun. 1989-nî kong-pò͘ ûi koān-kip bûn-bu̍t pó-hō͘ toaⁿ-ūi.

Tē-hong Tek-san[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Àn-chiàu le̍k-sú kì-chài, "Chiu-lêng-koān chiông sòng-tiâu khai-sí í-keng u chéng , chū-sán-chū-ēng. Chheng-tāi hâm-hong, tông-tī nî-kan, tê-bí hiān khai-sí gōa-siau se-au, lâm-iông téng só͘-chāi, 1946-nî 'koan-su' (官司) tê ū tek-kàu pa-ná-má kok-chè phok-lám-hōe gîn-chióng." Chiu-lêng hiān-chú-sî ū tê-hn̂g bīn-chek 10.7 bān bó͘, chóng-sán-liōng 6340 tùn, sán-ta̍t 6910 bān kho͘, chiàm lông-gia̍p sán-ta̍t 12%, choân-koān 70% í-siōng ê lông-gia̍p jîn-kháu ti̍t-chiap á-sī kan-chiap chiông-sū tê-bí sán-gia̍p. Tī 2000-nî tiong-kok tê-bûn-hòa kok-chè gián-thó-hōe téng-bīn, "Chí-ûn-gîn-chiam" (紫雲銀針) tek-kàu kim-chióng, "Chí-ûn Ko-san Tōa-âng-hô" (紫雲高山大紅毫), "Koan-su it-kip hoe-tê" (官司一級花茶) tek-kàu iu-siù-chióng. Tī 2000-nî Tiong-kok kok-chè Tê Phok-lám Kau-e̍k-hōe téng, "Koan-su bô-chiam" (官司毛尖) tek-kàu kim-chióng, "Koan-su le̍k-tê" (官司綠茶) tek-kàu gîn-chióng.