Lietuva-gí

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Lietuva-gí
lietuvių kalba
Goân-chū kok-ka Lietuva
Sú-iōng tē-khu Baltic Tē-khu
Bîn-cho̍k Lithuanians
bú-gí sú-iōng-chiá 3.0 million (2012)[1]
Gí-hē
Hong-giân
Bûn-jī hē-thóng Latin (Lithuanian alphabet)
Lithuanian Braille
Koaⁿ-hong tē-ūi
Koaⁿ-hong gí-giân  Lithuania
 European Union
Sêng-jīn ê
chió-sò͘ gí-giân
Koán-lí ki-kò͘ Commission of the Lithuanian Language
Gí-giân tāi-bé
ISO 639-1 lt
ISO 639-2 lit
ISO 639-3 Either:
lit – Modern Lithuanian
olt – Old Lithuanian
Glottolog lith1251
Linguasphere 54-AAA-a
Map of Lithuanian language.svg
Map of the area of the Lithuanian language in the late 20th century and the 21st century
Che bûn-chiong pau-hâm IPA hû-hō. Nā-sī bô siong-koan ê jī-hêng chi-oān, lí khó-lêng ē khoàⁿ tio̍h būn-hō, hng-kheng ia̍h-sī khî-thaⁿ hû-hō, bô-hoat-tō͘ chèng-siông hián-sī Unicode jī-goân. Chhiáⁿ lí khoàⁿ Help:IPA.

Lietuva-gí (liétubah-gí) sī Lietuva ê koan-hong gí-giân, iā sī Au-chiu Liân-bêng ê koaⁿ-hong gí-giân chi-it. Tī Lietuva kok-lāi, tāi-iok ū 2 pah 80 bān Lietuva-gí ê bó-gí jîn-kháu[2]; tī kî-thaⁿ tē-khu, tāi-iok koh-ū lēng-gōa 20 bān ê bó-gí jîn-kháu.

Nā ēng gí-giân hun-lūi ê kak-tō͘ lâi khòaⁿ Lietuva-gí, i khah chiap-kīn hù-kīn ê Latvia-gí. Su-siá hē-thóng hong-bīn, sī ēng la-teng-jī lâi siá. It-poaⁿ gí-giân-ha̍k ê gián-kiú kap hun-sek jīn-ûi, tī Ìn-Au gí-hē lāi-té, Lietuva-gí sī bo̍k-chêng siōng-kài kó͘-chá ê gí-giân, iû-goân pó-liû Goân-chó͘ Ìn-Au giân-gí ê te̍k-sek.

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Che sī bo̍k-chêng chhōe tio̍h siōng kó͘-chá, ēng Lietuva-gí bûn-jī siá ê chhiú-kó, tāi-iok sī tī 1503 nî só͘ lâu lo̍h--lâi ê kì-lo̍k. Chit-tiuⁿ tô͘ sī hiān-tāi koh hoan-siá ê pán-pún.

Hām kî-thaⁿ Ìn-Au Gí-hē lāi-té ê gí-giân lâi pí-kàu, Lietuva-gí kap Hoân-gí, iā sī Kó͘ Hi-lia̍p-gí kāng-khoán, siong-tùi sī pó-chhî tio̍h khah oân-chéng ê gí-im kap bûn-hoat kiat-kò͘, ū khah bêng-hián ê goân-chá gí-giân te̍k-sek. Sui-jiân Lietuva-gí ê bûn-pún, chit-chūn ē-tàng khòaⁿ tio̍h ê, ke̍k-ke chhōe ū kàu se-goân 1500 nî chó-iū ê chu-liāu niâ, m̄-koh in-ūi ū hia-ê siong-tùi oân-chéng ê gí-hoat te̍k-sek, iû-goân sī gián-kiú Goân-chó͘ Ìn-Au giân-gí ê tiōng-iàu chham-khó kap ki-chhó͘.

Chi̍t-kóa choan-bûn gián-kiú Lietuva-gí ê gí-giân choan-ka chhin-chhiūⁿ Franz Bopp, August Schleicher, Adalbert Bezzenberger, Louis Hjelmslev, Ferdinand de Saussure, Winfred P. Lehmann and Vladimir Toporov téng-téng.

Gí-giân Tē-khu[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Lietuva-gí chú-iàu ê sú-iōng tē-khu tī Lietuva. Kî-thaⁿ chhiūⁿ Belarus, Latvia, Pho-lân kok-lāi, kap Lō͘-se-a ê Kaliningrad Chiu chit-má mā-ū Lietuva-gí ê sú-iōng jîn-kháu.

Su-siá[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Lietuva-gí ē su-siá hē-thóng sú-iōng ki-pún ê La-teng jī-bó chi-gōa, koh ka-siōng Phiat-im hû-hō. Chóng-kiōng ū 32 ê jī-bó. Su-siá ê sî-chūn, koàn-sì kah y siá tī į (į im sī i ê im ka-siōng phîⁿ-im) ê āu-piah, in-ūi nn̄g ê jī-bó lóng sī tāi-piáu tn̂g-bó-im [iː] ê im.

Tōa-siá
A Ą B C Č D E Ę Ė F G H I Į Y J K L M N O P R S Š T U Ų Ū V Z Ž
Sió-siá
a ą b c č d e ę ė f g h i į y j k l m n o p r s š t u ų ū v z ž

Chuù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Chham-khó bûn-hiàn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  • Ambrazas, Vytautas; Geniušienė, Emma; Girdenis, Aleksas; Sližienė, Nijolė; Valeckienė, Adelė; Valiulytė, Elena; Tekorienė, Dalija; Pažūsis, Lionginas (1997), Ambrazas, Vytautas, pian., Lithuanian Grammar, Vilnius: Institute of the Lithuanian Language, ISBN 9986-813-22-0 
  • Pang-bô͘:SOWL
  • Leonardas Dambriūnas, Antanas Klimas, William R. Schmalstieg, Beginner's Lithuanian, Hippocrene Books, 1999, ISBN 0-7818-0678-X. Older editions (copyright 1966) called "Introduction to modern Lithuanian".
  • Remys, Edmund, Review of Modern Lithuanian Grammar, Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, Chicago, 2nd revised edition, 2003.
  • Klimas, Antanas. "Baltic and Slavic revisited". Lituanus vol. 19, no. 1, Spring 1973. 23 October 2007 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  • Zigmas Zinkevičius, "Lietuvių kalbos istorija" ("History of Lithuanian Language") Vol.1, Vilnius: Mokslas, 1984, ISBN 5-420-00102-0.
  • Remys, Edmund, General distinguishing features of various Indo-European languages and their relationship to Lithuanian, Indogermanische Forschungen, Berlin, New York, 2007.
  • Dini, P. U. (2000). Baltų kalbos: Lyginamoji istorija [Baltic Languages: A Comparative History] (ēng Lietuva-gí). Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas. ISBN 5-420-01444-0. 

Gōa-pō͘ liân-kiat[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Wikipedia
Wikipedia ū Lietuva-gí ê pán-pún.