Thang-chài-seng lêng-goân

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Thang-chài-seng lêng-goân (Eng-gí: renewable energy) sī ùi thang-chài-seng chu-goân (ē-tàng pó͘-chhiong, chhin-chhiūⁿ ji̍t-kng, hong, hō͘, hái-tiâu, chúi-éng, kap tē-jia̍t) siu-chi̍p lâi ê lêng-goân.[1] Thang-chài-seng lêng-goân tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ thê-kiong lêng-goân hō͘ sì ê tiōng-iàu léng-he̍k: hoat-tiān, khong-khì, chúi ka-jia̍t/chè-léng, kau-thong, kap to̍k-li̍p tiān-goân hē-thóng téng lêng-goân ho̍k-bū.[2]

Kin-kì REN21 2017 nî ê pò-kò, thang-chài-seng lêng-goân tī 2015 kap 2016 nî ê sî-chūn hun-pia̍t chiàm jîn-lūi sè-kài lêng-goân siau-hàu-liōng kap seng-sán lêng-goân ê 19.3% kap 24.5%. Lêng-goân siau-hàu pun chò thoân-thóng seng-chit-lêng 8.9%, jia̍t-lêng (hiān-tāi seng-chit-lêng, tē-jia̍t, kap thài-iông-lêng) chiàm 4.2%, chúi-le̍k-tiān chiàm 3.9%, kî-thaⁿ lâi-chū hong-lêng, thài-iông-lêng, tē-jia̍t, kap kî-thaⁿ hêng-sek seng-chit-lêng ê tiān-lêng chiàm 2.2%. 2015 nî, choân-kiû tùi thang-chài-seng ki-su̍t ê tâu-chu chhiau-kòe 2,860 ek Bí-kim.[3] 2017 nî, choân-kiû thang-chài-seng lêng-goân tâu-chu chóng-gia̍h sī 2,798 ek Bí-kim, kî-tiong Tiong-kok chiàm 1,266 ek Bí-kim, chiàm choân-kiû tâu-chu ê 45%, Bí-kok chiàm 405 ek Bí-kim, Au-chiu chiàm 409 ek Bí-kim.[4] Choân-kiû hām thang-chài-seng lêng-goân sán-gia̍p siong-koan ê kang-chok ko͘-kè ū 770 bān ê, kî-tiong thài-iông-kng hoat-tiān sī siāng tōa ê thang-chài-seng lêng-goân thâu-ke.[5] Thang-chài-seng lêng-goân hē-thóng tng-teh khoài-sok piàn chò koh-khah ko-hāu mā koh-khah sio̍k, in tī chóng lêng-goân siau-hàu tiong só͘ chiàm ê hūn-gia̍h mā tng-teh cheng-ka.[6] Chia̍t-chì 2019 nî, choân-kiû sin-cheng chong-ki iông-liōng ê 3 hun-chi 2 í-siōng lóng sī thang-chài-seng--ê.[7] In-ūi cheng-ka liáu thang-chài-seng lêng-goân kap thian-jiân-khì ê sú-iōng, mûi-thòaⁿ kap chio̍h-iû siau-hùi ê cheng-tióng khó-lêng ē tī 2020 nî kiat-sok.[8][9]

Tī kok-ka ê chân-kip, choân-sè-kài chì-chió ū 30 ê kok-ka í-keng ū thang-chài-seng lêng-goân, chiàm lêng-goân kiong-èng ê 20% í-siōng.[10] Ī-kè kok-ka thang-chài-seng lêng-goân chhī-tiûⁿ tī bī-lâi cha̍p tang chì í-āu ē kè-sio̍k kiông-kèng cheng-tióng. Chi̍t-kóa só͘-chāi kap chì-chió nn̄g ê kok-ka (Peng-tó kap Nô͘-ui) í-keng ēng thang-chài-seng lêng-goân hoat-tiān, ah kî-thaⁿ chē-chē kok-ka lóng siat-tēng liáu bī-lâi ta̍t-kàu 100% thang-chài-seng lêng-goân ê bo̍k-piau.[11] Sè-kài siōng chì-chió ū 47 ê kok-ka í-keng ū chhiau-kòe 50% ê tiān-le̍k lâi-chū thang-chài-seng chu-goân.[12][13][14] Hām khòng-bu̍t tian-tó, thang-chài-seng lêng-goân tī khoah-khoah ê tē-lí khe-he̍k lāi chûn-chāi, khòng-bu̍t jiân-lia̍t chi̍p-tiong tī chió-sò͘ kúi-ê kok-ka. Khoài-sok pō͘-sú thang-chài-seng lêng-goân kap lêng-goân hāu-lu̍t ki-su̍t ē-tàng tòa-lâi kī-tāi ê lêng-goân an-choân, kiám-bān khì-hāu piàn-hòa kap keng-chè lī-ek.[15] Tī kok-chè kong-lūn tiâu-cha tiong, tōa-la̍t chi-chhî thui-kóng thang-chài-seng lêng-goân, pí-lūn thài-iông-lêng kap hong-lêng.[16][17]

Sui-jiân chē-chē thang-chài-seng lêng-goân hāng-bo̍k lóng sī tōa kui-bô͘--ê, m̄-kog thang-chài-seng ki-su̍t mā tī lông-chhun kap pian-oán tē-khu í-ki̍p hoat-tián-tiong kok-ka ha̍h-ēng; tī chia-ê kok-ka, lêng-goân thong-siông tùi jîn-lūi hoat-tián chì-koan tiōng-iàu.[18] In-ūi tōa to-sò͘ thang-chài-seng lêng-goân ki-su̍t lóng thê-kiong tiān-le̍k, thang-chài-seng lêng-goân pō͘-sú thong-siông hām chìn-chi̍t-pō͘ ê tiān-khì-hòa kiat-ha̍p sú-iōng, che ū chin chē hó-chhù: tiān-le̍k ē-tàng choán-hòa chò kia̍t-lêng (pit-iàu sî sán-seng pí hòa-chio̍h jiân-liāu koh-khah koân ê un-tō͘), ē-sái choán-hòa chò ki-hāi-lêng. Hāu-lu̍t koân, pēng-chhiáⁿ tī sú-iōng ê sî chiâⁿ chheng-khì.[19][20] Lēng-gōa, thang-chài-seng lêng-goân ê tiān-khì-hòa hāu-lu̍t koh-khah koân, só͘-í ē-sái tōa-tōa kàng-kē it-chhù lêng-goân ê su-kiû.[21]

Chóng-lám[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chú-liû ki-su̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Hong-lêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chú-le̍k-lêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thài-iông-lêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Tē-jia̍t-lêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Seng-bu̍t-lêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Iông-ji̍p lêng-goân hē-thóng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chhī-tiûⁿ kap kang-gia̍p chhu-sè[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chèng-chhek[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Sin-heng ki-su̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Cheng-lūn[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thang-chài-seng lêng-goân ê tē-iân chèng-tī[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Khoân-kéng éng-hióng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Siá-chin[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-oa̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Ellabban, Omar; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Blaabjerg, Frede (2014). "Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 39: 748–764 [749]. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.113. 
  2. "Renewables 2010 Global Status Report" (PDF). REN21. September 2010. October 27, 2019 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  3. REN21, Global Status Report 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  4. Frankfurt School – UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance (2018). Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2018. Available online at: https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/unep/documents/global-trends-renewable-energy-investment-2018
  5. IRENA, Renewable energy and jobs, Annual review 2015, IRENA.
  6. "Global renewable energy trends". Deloitte Insights. 
  7. "Renewable Energy Now Accounts for a Third of Global Power Capacity". IRENA. 2 April 2019. goân-loē-iông tī 21 April 2019 hőng khó͘-pih. 21 April 2019 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  8. Electric cars and cheap solar 'could halt fossil fuel growth by 2020' The Guardian
  9. "Expect the Unexpected : The Disruptive Power of Low-carbon Technology" (PDF). Carbontracker.org. pp. 3, 30. 
  10. REN21 (2017). "Renewables global futures report 2017". 
  11. Vad Mathiesen, Brian; et al. (2015). "Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions". Applied Energy. 145: 139–154. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.075. 
  12. "12 Countries Leading the Way in Renewable Energy". Click Energy. 
  13. "Renewable Electricity Capacity And Generation Statistics June 2018". goân-loē-iông tī 28 November 2018 hőng khó͘-pih. 27 November 2018 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  14. "Renewable Electricity Capacity And Generation Statistics June 2018". 3 January 2019 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  15. International Energy Agency (2012). "Energy Technology Perspectives 2012" (PDF). 
  16. "Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries" (PDF). unep.org. United Nations Environment Programme. 2007. p. 3. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 4 March 2016 hőng khó͘-pih. 13 October 2014 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  17. Sütterlin, B.; Siegrist, Michael (2017). "Public acceptance of renewable energy technologies from an abstract versus concrete perspective and the positive imagery of solar power". Energy Policy. 106. 
  18. World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies Archived 9 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., p. 221.
  19. Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo (2011). "Towards an electricity-powered world". Energy and Environmental Science. 4 (9): 3193–3222. doi:10.1039/c1ee01249e. 
  20. Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo (2016). "Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition". Chemistry – A European Journal. 22 (1): 32–57. doi:10.1002/chem.201503580. PMID 26584653. 
  21. Volker Quaschning, Regenerative Energiesysteme. Technologie – Berechnung – Simulation. 8th. Edition. Hanser (Munich) 2013, p. 49.