Tn̂g-chio̍h

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Tò͘-sêng tn̂g-chio̍h kò͘-thé iông-e̍k ê khòng-bu̍t ê sêng-hūn ūi-siòng tô͘.

Tn̂g-chio̍h (Hàn-jī: 長石; Eng-gí: feldspar) sī chi̍t chióng chō-gâm khòng-bu̍t ê cho̍k-kûn, sio̍k-tī ko͘-á ke-sng-iâm khòng-bu̍t, sêng-hūn ū a-lú-mih, koh ū pau-hâm sodium, calcium, potassium ia̍h-sī barium.[1] The most common members of the feldspar group are the plagioclase (sodium-calcium) tn̂g-chio̍h kap alkali (potassium-sodium) tn̂g-chio̍h.[2] Tē-khak liōng-iok ū 60% lóng sī tn̂g-chio̍h,[1] tē-kiû ê tāi-lio̍k tē-khak mā ū 41% ê tāng-liōng sī tn̂g-chio̍h.[3][4]

Sêng-hūn[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Tn̂g-chio̍h chit khoán khòng-bu̍t ê chú-iàu sêng-hūn sī ko͘-á ke-sng-iâm (罟仔珪酸鹽). Chia̍p-khòaⁿ ê tn̂g-chio̍h, in ê sêng-hūn ē-sái ēng saⁿ chióng toan-sêng-hūn lâi piáu-ta̍t:

Chiàⁿ-tn̂g-chio̍h kap chô-tn̂g-chio̍h tiong-kan ê kò͘-thé iông-ek kiò-chò kiⁿ-tn̂g-chio̍h (鹼長石). Chiàⁿ-tn̂g-chio̍h kap chô-tn̂g-chio̍h tiong-kan ê kò͘-thé iông-ek kiò-chò chhoa̍h-tn̂g-chio̍h (斜長石)[5]. Chiàⁿ-tn̂g-chio̍h kap hoe-tn̂g-chio̍h kan-taⁿ ē-tàng sio-lām chò iú-hān ê kò͘-thé iông-ek, bē chiâⁿ-chò khòng-bu̍t; occurs between K-feldspar and anorthite, and in the two other solid solutions, immiscibility occurs at temperatures common in the crust of the Earth. Albite is considered both a plagioclase and alkali feldspar.

Kiⁿ-tn̂g-chio̍h[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Kiⁿ-tn̂g-chio̍h ū nn̄g chióng: chi̍t chióng pau-koat potassium, koh kap sodium, a-lú-mih, ia̍h ke-sò͘ cho͘-ha̍p; lēng-gōa chi̍t chióng sī potassium ōaⁿ-chò barium.

  • orthoclase (monoclinic) KAlSi
    3
    O
    8
  • sanidine (monoclinic) (K,Na)AlSi
    3
    O
    8
  • microcline (triclinic) KAlSi
    3
    O
    8
  • anorthoclase (triclinic) (Na,K)AlSi
    3
    O
    8

Ammonium tn̂g-chio̍h[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Buddingtonite sī chi̍t chióng ammonium tn̂g-chio̍h, hòa-ha̍k-sek sī NH4AlSi3O8.

Barium tn̂g-chio̍h[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Barium tn̂g-chio̍h lóng sī toaⁿ-chhoa̍h ê cheng-thé, ū pau-koat

  • celsian BaAl
    2
    Si
    2
    O
    8
    [6]
  • hyalophane (K,Ba)(Al,Si)
    4
    O
    8
    [7]


Chhoa̍h-tn̂g-chio̍h[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Chhoa̍h-tn̂g-chio̍hsaⁿ-chhoa̍h ê cheng-thé. Chhoa̍h-tn̂g-chio̍h ū hē-lia̍t (hoe-tn̂g-chio̍h ê phă-siàn-tò͘ siá tī leh goe̍h-bâi-tiám lāi):

  • chô-tn̂g-chio̍h (0 ~ 10) NaAlSi
    3
    O
    8
  • oligoclase (10 ~ 30) (Na,Ca)(Al,Si)AlSi
    2
    O
    8
  • andesine (30 ~ 50) NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8
  • labradorite (50 ~ 70) (Ca,Na)Al(Al,Si)Si
    2
    O
    8
  • bytownite (70 ~ 90) (NaSi,CaAl)AlSi
    2
    O
    8
  • hoe-tn̂g-chio̍h (90 ~ 100) CaAl
    2
    Si
    2
    O
    8

Kiat-kò͘[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Tn̂g-chio̍h sī chéng-thé kiat-kò͘ ê ki-pún tan-ūi sī a-lú-mih ke-sng-iâm sì-bīn-thé (Hàn-jī: a-lú-mih珪酸鹽四面體; Eng-gí: aluminosilicate tetrahedra). Ta̍k-ê sì-bīn-thé ê cho͘-sêng lóng sī án-ne: tiong-ng ū chi̍t ê a-lú-mih ia̍h-sī ke-sò͘ lī-chú, piⁿ-·á hō͘ sì ê sng-sò͘ lī-chú ûi-·khí-lâi. Ta̍k-ê sng-sò͘ lī-chú iū-koh chiap-tio̍h kè-piah ê sì-bīn-thé, chiâⁿ-chò chi̍t ê sam-chhù-goân ê bāng-lō͘. A-lú-mih ke-sng-iâm sì-bīn-thé tī tn̂g-chio̍h lāi-té ê kiat-kò͘ sī tn̂g tiâu liān-á, chhit-oai-poeh-choāi, ná-chhiūⁿ khū-lán-khuh liān-á.

Sû-goân[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Eng-gí miâ feldspar sī tùi Tek-gí Feldspat lâi ·ê, che sī Feld ("chhân") and Spat ("phiáⁿ") ha̍p-·khí-lâi ·ê ha̍p-sêng-sû. Spat ê "chiok gâu li̍h-·khui pìⁿ chi̍t phiáⁿ ê chio̍h-thâu"; Feldspat chit-ê sû sī 18 sè-kí chiah khai-sí ū khah te̍k-pia̍t ê ì-sù, khó-lêng sī in-ūi lâng chin chiap hō͘ lâng tiàm chhân-lāi ê chio̍h-thâu téng-koân chhōe·-tio̍h (Urban Brückmann, 1783); lēng-gōa chi̍t ê kóng-hoat sī kóng, ū "chhân" within granite and other minerals (René-Just Haüy, 1804).[8]

Hong-hòa[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Seng-sán kap lō͘-ēng[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Siòng-phìⁿ[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

Chham-khó chu-liāu[siu-kái | kái goân-sí-bé]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Neuendorf, K.K.E.; Mehl, Jr., J.P.; Jackson, J.A. (editors) (2005). Glossary of Geology (5th pán.). Alexandria, Virginia: American Geological Institute. p. 232. ISBN 978-0922152896. 
  2. Deer, W.A; Howie, R.A.; Zussman, J. (2001). Rock-forming Minerals (2nd edition) Volume 4A. London: Geological Society of London. p. 2. ISBN 1-86239-081-9. 
  3. Anderson, Robert S.; Anderson, Suzanne P. (2010). Geomorphology: The Mechanics and Chemistry of Landscapes. Cambridge University Press. p. 187. ISBN 9781139788700. 
  4. Rudnick, R. L.; Gao, S. (2003). "Composition of the Continental Crust". Chū Holland, H. D.; Turekian, K. K. Treatise on Geochemistry. Treatise on Geochemistry. 3. New York: Elsevier Science. pp. 1–64. Bibcode:2003TrGeo...3....1R. doi:10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/03016-4. ISBN 978-0-08-043751-4. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī feldspar
  6. Celsian–orthoclase series on Mindat.org.
  7. Celsian–hyalophane series on Mindat.org.
  8. Die Namen der Steine. Das Mineralreich im Spiegel der Sprache 
  9. Brown, Dwayne (October 30, 2012). "NASA Rover's First Soil Studies Help Fingerprint Martian Minerals". NASA. October 31, 2012 khòaⁿ--ê.