A-lú-mih

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A-lú-mih,  13Al
Aluminium-4.jpg
Aluminum Spectra.jpg
A-lú-mih ê kng-phó͘ sòaⁿ (spectral lines)
Ki-pún sèng-chit
Miâ, hû-hō a-lú-mih, Al
Phian-miâ aluminum (US)
Gōa-hêng kim-sio̍k-khoán phú-gîn-sek
A-lú-mih tī chiu-kî-piáu lāi ê ūi-tì
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
B

Al

Ga
magnesiuma-lú-mihsi-lí-khóng
Goân-chú-hoan 13
Goân-chú-liōng (±) 26.9815385(7)[1]
Goân-sò͘ lūi-pia̍t   āu-kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k, ū-sî hong hun chò lūi-kim-sio̍k
Cho̍k, hun-khu 13 cho̍k, p-block
Chiu-kî 3 chiu-kî
Tiān-chú pâi-lia̍t [Ne] 3s2 3p1
per shell 2, 8, 3
Bu̍t-lí sèng-chit
Siòng kò͘-thé
Iûⁿ-tiám 933.47 K ​(660.32 °C, ​1220.58 °F)
Hut-tiám 2743 K ​(2470 °C, ​4478 °F)
Bi̍t-tō͘ near Sek-un 2.70 g·cm−3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.375 g·cm−3
Iûⁿ-hoà-jia̍t 10.71 kJ·mol−1
Cheng-hoat-jia̍t 284 kJ·mol−1
Jia̍t-iông-liōng 24.20 J·mol−1·K−1
cheng-khì-ap
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
tī T (K) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
Goân-chú sèng-chit
Sng-hòa-sò͘ +3, +2,[2] +1[3], −1, −2 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Tiān-hū-tō͘ Pauling scale: 1.61
Tiān-lī-lêng 1st: 577.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1816.7 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2744.8 kJ·mol−1
(more)
Goân-chú pòaⁿ-kèng empirical: 143 pm
Kiōng-kè pòaⁿ-kèng 121±4 pm
Van der Waals pòaⁿ-kèng 184 pm
Cha̍p-lio̍k
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for a-lú-mih
Siaⁿ-sok thin rod (rolled) 5000 m·s−1 (at r.t.)
Jia̍t-phòng-tiòng 23.1 µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)
Jia̍t-thoân-tō-lu̍t 237 W·m−1·K−1
Tiān-chó͘-lu̍t 28.2 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Chû-sèng paramagnetic[4]
Young's modulus 70 GPa
Shear modulus 26 GPa
Bulk modulus 76 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.35
Mohs hardness 2.75
Vickers hardness 160–350 MPa
Brinell hardness 160–550 MPa
CAS Registry Number 7429-90-5
Le̍k-sú
Chhui-chhek Antoine Lavoisier[5] (1787)
Siōng chá hû-lî Hans Christian Ørsted[6] (1825)
 hō-miâ Humphry Davy[5] (1807)
Chòe ún-tēng ê tông-ūi-sò͘
Chú bûn-chiong: a-lú-mih ê tông-ūi-sò͘
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
26Al trace 7.17×105 y β+ 1.17 26Mg
ε 26Mg
γ 1.8086
27Al 100% 27Al is stable with 14 neutrons

Al (Aluminium; Bí-kok Eng-gí: Aluminum), Hàn-jī sī (鋁, lū, lī), mā ū hō hoân-sò͘ (礬素) he̍k-chiá khin-gîn (輕銀), sī 1 chióng hoà-ha̍k goân-sò͘, Tâi-oân koàn-sì tha̍k a-lú-mih.

Gián-kiù-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

A-lú-mih sī Friedrich Wohler tī 1827 nǐ hun-lî chhut--lâi. Chóng-sī bô sûn ê hêng-sek tī chìn-chêng tio̍h ū Hans Christian Oersted chò--chhut-lâi. Tī che í-chêng, lâng mā chai-iáⁿ i chûn-chāi tī hoân (礬) lāi-bīn.[7]

Kài-iāu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

A-lú-mih chiàm tē-kiû tē-khak 8.3%, hong-hù ê thêng-tō͘ pâi tē-3, tī si-lí-khóng āu-piah.[7]

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Aluminium monoxide
  3. Aluminium iodide
  4. Lide, D. R. (2000). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds" (PDF). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0849304814. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Aluminum. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Tī 3 March 2013 khoàⁿ--ê.
  6. 13 Aluminium. Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Tī 2008-09-12 khoàⁿ--ê.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Harold M. Cobb, ed. (2012). "aluminum". Dictionary of Metals. ASM International. ISBN 978-1-61503-978-4. 

Siong-koan[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Wikimedia Commons bīn-téng, kap Aluminium ū koan-hē ê to-mûi-thé tóng-àn.