Hut-sò͘

Wikipedia (chū-iû ê pek-kho-choân-su) beh kā lí kóng...
Thiàu khì: se̍h chāmchhiau-chhoē
Hut-sò͘,  9F
Small sample of pale yellow liquid fluorine condensed in liquid nitrogen
Liquid fluorine at cryogenic temperatures
Ki-pún sèng-chit
Miâ, hû-hō hut-sò͘, F
Tông-sò͘-thé alpha, beta
Gōa-hêng gas: very pale yellow
liquid: bright yellow
solid: alpha is opaque, beta is transparent
Hut-sò͘ tī chiu-kî-piáu lāi ê ūi-tì
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)


F

Cl
sng-sò͘hut-sò͘ne-óng
Goân-chú-hoan 9
Goân-chú-liōng (±) 18.998403163(6)[1]
Goân-sò͘ lūi-pia̍t   siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k
Cho̍k, hun-khu 17 cho̍k, p-block
Chiu-kî 2 chiu-kî
Tiān-chú pâi-lia̍t [He] 2s2 2p5[2]
per shell 2, 7
Bu̍t-lí sèng-chit
Siòng gas
Iûⁿ-tiám 53.48 K ​(−219.67 °C, ​−363.41 °F)[3]
Hut-tiám 85.03 K ​(−188.11 °C, ​−306.60 °F)[3]
Bi̍t-tō͘ at stp (0 °C and 101.325 kPa) 1.696 g·L−1[4]
when liquid, at b.p. 1.505 g·cm−3[5]
Sam-siòng-tiám 53.48 K, ​90 kPa[3]
Lîm-kài-tiám 144.41 K, 5.1724 MPa[3]
Cheng-hoat-jia̍t 6.51 kJ·mol−1[4]
Jia̍t-iông-liōng Cp: 31 J·mol−1·K−1[5] (at 21.1 °C)
Cv: 23 J·mol−1·K−1[5] (at 21.1 °C)
cheng-khì-ap
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
tī T (K) 38 44 50 58 69 85
Goân-chú sèng-chit
Sng-hòa-sò͘ −1 ​(oxidizes oxygen)
Tiān-hū-tō͘ Pauling scale: 3.98[2]
Tiān-lī-lêng 1st: 1681 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3374 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6147 kJ·mol−1
(more)[6]
Kiōng-kè pòaⁿ-kèng 64 pm[7]
Van der Waals pòaⁿ-kèng 135 pm[8]
Cha̍p-lio̍k
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō cubic
Cubic crystal structure for hut-sò͘
Jia̍t-thoân-tō-lu̍t 0.02591 W·m−1·K−1[9]
Chû-sèng diamagnetic (−1.2×10−4)[10][11]
CAS Registry Number 7782-41-4[2]
Le̍k-sú
Hō-miâ after the mineral fluorite, itself named after Latin fluo (to flow, in smelting)
Hoat-kiàn André-Marie Ampère (1810)
Siōng chá hû-lî Henri Moissan[2] (June 26, 1886)
 hō-miâ Humphry Davy
Chòe ún-tēng ê tông-ūi-sò͘
Chú bûn-chiong: hut-sò͘ ê tông-ūi-sò͘
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
18F trace 109.77 min β+ (96.9%) 0.634 18O
ε (3.1%) 1.656 18O
19F 100% 19F is stable with 10 neutrons

Fluorine ia̍h hut-sò͘ (弗素), sī só·-ū í-keng chāi-iáⁿ ê goân-sò· lāi-té siāng-ū oa̍h-sèng--ê, só·-í tī tāi-chū-jiân i lóng-sī í hut-hòa-bu̍t (fluoride) ê hêng-thāi chûn-chāi. Hut-khì (氟氣, F2) ē chhim-se̍k po-lê kap chio̍h-eng, mā-ē tì-sú to-sò· ê kim-sio̍k sio--khí-lâi. Hut-khì kan-na ē-sái tû-chûn tiàm bó· chi̍t-chióng tông-gia̍t (銅鎳) ha̍p-kim chè-sêng ê iông-khì, sui-bóng i iah-sī ē kah chit-chióng ha̍p-kim choh-iōng, m̄-koh ē tī piáu-bīn hêng-sêng 1-têng pó-hō·-têng, hông-chí kim-sio̍k chìn-chi̍t-pō· koh sán-seng hoán-èng.

Hoà-ha̍p-bu̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Fluorine kóng-hoàn hun-pò· tī chū-jiân-kài, tē-khak ū 0.032% (320 ppm) sī i lâi cho·-sêng. Fluorine kah kim-sio̍k hêng-sêng hòa-ha̍p-bu̍t, chia-ê hut-hòa-bu̍t tāi-pō·-hūn ē iôⁿ tī chúi--nih, m̄-koh (鋁), iân (鉛), (鎂), kài (鈣) téng ê hut-hòa-bu̍t tio̍h sio̍k-î bē iôⁿ he̍k pháiⁿ iôⁿ î chúi.

Hut-chio̍h (fluorite) he̍k hut-hòa-kài (fluorspar, CaF2) sī chú-iàu hâm fluorine ê khòng-bu̍t, kî-tiong fluorine tāi-iok chiàm 48.8%, ah peng-cheng-chio̍h he̍k hut-hòa-lī-ná (cryolite, Na3AlF6) sī khah-chió khòaⁿ--kìⁿ ê hâm-hut khòng-bu̍t, khiok-sī lī kang-gia̍p lāi-té pit-iàu ê goân-bu̍t-liāu.

Hut-lîn-hoe-chio̍h (fluorapatite, Ca10[PO4]F2) sī lîn-sng-chio̍h ê chú-iàu sêng-hun, sī lîn-pûi ê goân-bu̍t-liāu, kî-tiong fluorine chiàm 3.8%.

In-ūi fluorine phó·-phiàn chûn-chāi tī tē-khak, tē-kiû siōng só·-ū hêng-sek ê chúi lóng-ū bô-kâng lông-tō· ê fluorine. Fluorine tī ím-iōng-chúi ê lông-tō·, tī Bí-kok sī khah-chió î 0.1 ppm kàu 16 ppm, tī Eng-kok sī khah-chió î 0.1 ppm kàu 5.8 ppm, ah tī Hui-chiu bó· chi̍t-kóa só·-chāi sīm-chì ē koân kàu 95 ppm. Tī hái-chúi--nih fluorine ê lông-tō· sī 0.8 ppm kàu 1.4 ppm.

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]