Kim

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"Kim" ê kî-tha ì-sū chhiáⁿ khòaⁿ Kim (khu-pia̍t-ia̍h).
Kim,  79Au
Gold-crystals.jpg
Ki-pún sèng-chit
Miâ, hû-hō kim, Au
Gōa-hêng kim-sio̍k-khoán n̂g-sek
Kim tī chiu-kî-piáu lāi ê ūi-tì
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Ag

Au

Rg
pe̍h-kimkimchúi-gîn
Goân-chú-hoan 79
Goân-chú-liōng (±) 196.966569(5)[1]
Goân-sò͘ lūi-pia̍t   kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k
Cho̍k, hun-khu 11 cho̍k, d-block
Chiu-kî 6 chiu-kî
Tiān-chú pâi-lia̍t [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Bu̍t-lí sèng-chit
Siòng solid
Iûⁿ-tiám 1337.33 K ​(1064.18 °C, ​1947.52 °F)
Hut-tiám 3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Bi̍t-tō͘ near Sek-un 19.30 g·cm−3
when liquid, at m.p. 17.31 g·cm−3
Iûⁿ-hoà-jia̍t 12.55 kJ·mol−1
Cheng-hoat-jia̍t 342 kJ·mol−1
Jia̍t-iông-liōng 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1
cheng-khì-ap
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
tī T (K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078
Goân-chú sèng-chit
Sng-hòa-sò͘ 5, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Tiān-hū-tō͘ Pauling scale: 2.54
Tiān-lī-lêng 1st: 890.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1980 kJ·mol−1
Goân-chú pòaⁿ-kèng empirical: 144 pm
Kiōng-kè pòaⁿ-kèng 136±6 pm
Van der Waals pòaⁿ-kèng 166 pm
Cha̍p-lio̍k
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face centered cubic crystal structure for kim
Siaⁿ-sok thin rod 2030 m·s−1 (at r.t.)
Jia̍t-phòng-tiòng 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)
Jia̍t-thoân-tō-lu̍t 318 W·m−1·K−1
Tiān-chó͘-lu̍t 22.14 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Chû-sèng diamagnetic[2]
Tensile strength 120 MPa
Young's modulus 79 GPa
Shear modulus 27 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa[3]
Poisson ratio 0.4
Mohs hardness 2.5
Vickers hardness 188–216 MPa
Brinell hardness 188–245 MPa
CAS Registry Number 7440-57-5
Le̍k-sú
Hō-miâ latin hō-miâ aurum, ì-sù sī chhut-ji̍t ê kng
Hoat-kiàn Tiong-tang (chêng 6000 nî chìn-chêng)
Chòe ún-tēng ê tông-ūi-sò͘
Chú bûn-chiong: kim ê tông-ūi-sò͘
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
195Au syn 186.10 d ε 0.227 195Pt
196Au syn 6.183 d ε 1.506 196Pt
β 0.686 196Hg
197Au 100% (α) 0.9545 193Ir
198Au syn 2.69517 d β 1.372 198Hg
199Au syn 3.169 d β 0.453 199Hg
Koat-hô͘ lāi ê pang-hoāi bô͘-sek (decay mode) lí-lūn-siōng ū khó-lêng m̄-koh si̍t-chè iá bô hoat-hiān

Kim(-á) (hû-hō: Au, Latin gí-goân: aurum), iā kóng n̂g-kim, sī 1 chióng chin tiōng-iàu ê chu-goân, sī chiu-kî-pió lāi-té ê 1 chióng hoà-ha̍k goân-sò͘, goân-chú-hoan 79. Au ham toā-hūn ê hoà-ha̍k-mi̍h bô chok-iōng, Kan-taⁿ Cl, F, ông-chúi (aqua regia), ham chheng-hoà-bu̍t (cyanide) ē kap Au khí hoán-èng; lēng-goā, tī chúi-gîn (mercury)--nih, Au mā ē iûⁿ--khì. Siau-sng (nitric acid) ē kā Au í-goā ê kim-sio̍k lóng iûⁿ--khì, tiāⁿ hông the̍h lâi chhì-giām ū Au ia̍h bô.

Hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kim ê hû-hō Au sī tùi Latin-gí aurum hō--lâi, jī-goân sī Lô-má sîn-ōe lāi-bīn ê lú-sîn Aurora[4].

Le̍k-sú[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kim sī 7 khoán tùi kó͘-chá chio̍h chai-iáⁿ ê kim-sio̍k chi it, kong-goân-chêng 5000 nî chó͘-iū ê Ai-ki̍p bûn-bêng tio̍h ū hoat-hiān, kim-á mā sī chió-sò͘ ū te̍k-sû sek-tī ê kim-sio̍k chi it, āu-bóe hong tòng chò sī chi̍t khoán châi-sán ê hêng-sek[4].

Chóng-sī kim-á sêng-pún koân jî-chhiá kiông-tō͘ kē, kòe-óng tī sán-gia̍p siōng ê lī-ēng iú-hān. Kàu tiān-chú sî-tāi, kim in-ūi khòng sng-hòa (oxidation) kap koân tó-tiān-sèng, piàn chò sī tiān-chú sán-phín ê tiōng-iàu châi-liāu[4].

Hêng-thé[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

N̂g-kim sī kim-sio̍k lāi-té tián-sèng (malleability) siāng hó ê chi̍t khoán; bí 1 kong-khek ê n̂g-kim ē-sái phah chò 1 kong-chhiò pêng-hong ê kim-po̍h. Sim-chì che kim-po̍h ē-tàng hong phah kah thàu-kng hia po̍h. In-ūi pòaⁿ thàu-kng ê kim-po̍h ē hoán-siā âng-gōa-kng, in sī chā âng-gōa-kng ki-sut (pí-lūn khòng-jia̍t) ê chi̍t chióng.

Lēng-gōa, kim-á ê bi̍t-tō͘ chin koân, bí 1 li̍p-hong kong-chhiò ū 19,300 kong-kin tāng.

Hòa-ha̍k[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Kim-hún ē-tàng kap iâm-sò͘ tī 180 °C ūn-tō͘ hoán-èng cho͘-sêng AuCl3.[5] Mā kah chhàu-sò͘ tī 140 °C hoán-èng chhut chhàu-hòa-kim(III), koh chhām ak-sò͘ keng-kòe chin bān ê hoán-èng piàn ak-hòa-kim(I).

Tōa pō͘-hūn ê sng lóng bô hoat-tō͘ kap kim ū hoán-èng, kî-tiong Selen-sng ē-tàng tī jia̍t kap lông ê tiāu-kiāⁿ hā hoán-èng. Lēng-gōa, siau-sng kap iâm-sng chiàu pí-lē lām ê ông-chú mā ē-sài.

Lī-iōng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thong sè-kài tùi sín chhut-sán ê kim-á siau-hùi tāi-khài 50% sio̍k chu-pó, 40% khai tī tâu-chu, lēng-gōa 10% ēng tī kang-gia̍p siōng.

Karat tī kim-á lâi kóng, sī piáu-sī n̂g-kim ê sûn-tō͘, sûn-kim sī 24 k, chiàm chi̍t pòaⁿ ê sûn-tō͘ tio̍h sī 12 k[4].

Chham-khó[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  2. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  3. Kelly, P.F. (2015). Properties of Materials. CRC Press. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4822-0624-1. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Harold M. Cobb, ed. (2012). "gold". Dictionary of Metals. ASM International. ISBN 978-1-61503-978-4. 
  5. Egon Wiberg; Nils Wiberg; A. F. Holleman (2001). Inorganic Chemistry (101st ed.). Academic Press. pp. 1286–1287. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.