Ainu-gú

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Ainu-gú (aynu itak/アイヌイタㇰ, Ji̍t-bûn: アイヌ語) sī Ji̍t-pún Ainu goân-chū-bîn-cho̍k ê thoân-thóng gú-giân.

Ainu-gú (aynu itak)
Kok-ka: Ji̍t-pún, Lō͘-se-a
Tē-khu: Pak-hái-tō, Sakhalin-tó; í-chá Kuril-kûn-tó kap pa̍t-ūi mā sī
Sú-iōng jîn-sò͘: > 1000?
Pâi-miâ: > 100
Hun-lūi: Ko·-gí

 Ainu-gú

Gú-giân má
ISO 639-2 mis
SIL AIN
Linguasphere 45-B

Sú-iōng chêng-hêng[siu-kái]

Tē-lí hun-pò͘[siu-kái]

Ainu-gú éng-kòe ê tē-lí hun-pò͘ pí hiān-chāi ke chin khoah, pau-koah Ji̍t-pún Pún-chiu pak-pêng, Pak-hái-tō, Lō͘-se-a ê Sakhalin-tó ê lâm-pêng, kap Kurile-kûn-tó (Ji̍t-gí: 千島列島). Taⁿ chú-iàu tī Pak-hái-tō ū lâng teh iōng, iû-kî sī lâm-pō͘ Saru (沙流) hit tah ê Nibutani (二風谷) siāng hoa̍t-phoat.

Lâng-sò·[siu-kái]

Bô lâng khak-si̍t chai-iáⁿ Ainu-lâng tang-tiong ū jōa-chē-lâng ê bó-gú (tē-it gú-giân) sī Ainu-gú. 1 phiⁿ pò-kò jīn-ûi ū 30 ê, chha-put-to lóng 80-hòe í-siōng ê lāu-lâng. Khah pó-siú ê kóng-hoat jīn-ûi ke̍k-ke 100 ê. Le̍k-sú-siōng in-ūi Ainu-lâng chhiâng-chāi hō͘ gōa-cho̍k siat-kè chò "tiāⁿ-tio̍h ē bia̍t-chéng ê bîn-cho̍k", Ainu-lâng bô jīn-tông chit khoán "sò͘-jī iû-hì".

Siāng oa̍h-thiàu ê sú-iōng-chiá m̄ sī bó-gú jîn-kháu, tian-tò sī āu--lâi chiah o̍h kóng ê tē-2 gú-giân sú-iōng-kûn. In khah chē sī sêng-jîn.

Hong-giân[siu-kái]

Hiān-tāi tī--leh a̍h sī khah siū tiōng-sī ê hong-giân:

  • Saru (沙流) hong-giân: Pak-hái-tō, Saru (Nibutani tē-tài); siāng ū la̍t, sī piau-chún-gú ê té.
  • Titose (千歳) hong-giân: Titose-chhī hit tah.

Hun-lūi, gú-hoat[siu-kái]

Ainu-gú ê piáu-bīn te̍k-cheng chhin-chhiūⁿ Ji̍t-pún-oē. Chóng--sī, ha̍k-kài jīn-ûi Ainu-gú sī 1 ê ko͘-gú, hām kî-thaⁿ ê gú-giân bô bêng-hián ê chhin-chiâⁿ koan-hē.

Ainu-gú sī SOV-hêng ê gú-giân, hām Ji̍t-gí sio-siâng, chú-sû (S) tī oē-kù thâu-chêng, tōng-sû (V) kòa tī bóe-liu, siū-sû (O) tī tiong-kan. Ainu-gú ū āu-tī-sû (postposition). Bêng-sû ē-sái tàu chò-hóe; siāng bóe-ê sī sû-thâu. Tōng-sû chiap-siū sû-thâu-bóe (affix).

Siaⁿ-ūn[siu-kái]

Ainu-gú ê im-chiat kiat-kò͘ sī CV(C). Chú-im hán-tit kiap chò chú-im-chhoàⁿ (consonant cluster).

Bó-im ū 5 ê:

i     u
e     o
   a

Chú-im:

p   t   k   ʔ (glottal stop is not written in transcription)
    s       h
    c (piáu-hiān chhut-lâi sī [ʧ], [ʦ], [ʤ] a̍h [ʣ])
w   y ([j])
m   n
    r

/ti/ piáu-hiān chhut-lâi sī [ʧi], /s/ tī/i/ thâu-chêng pìⁿ [ʃ]; tī im-chiat bóe mā pìⁿ [ʃ]. Ū hong-giân-chha: tī Sakhalin hong-giân, im-chiat boé ê /p, t, k, r/ pìⁿ /h/.

Ainu-gú ū im-koân tāng-im (pitch accent) ê hiān-siōng; ū sû-tòe (affix) ê gí-sû, koân-im khǹg tī sû-kin (stem); ah nā siāng-bó-im (diphthong) iah sī tē 1 ê im-chiat-bóe sī chú-im, tō khǹg tī tē 1 ê im-chiat; chhun--ê lóng khǹg tī tē 2 ê im-chiat.

Bûn-jī kap bûn-ha̍k[siu-kái]

Ainu-gú ū 2 chióng bûn-jī hē-thóng: lô-má-jī kah katakana-sek. Thong-iōng-bé ū chi-oān Ainu choan-iōng ê katakana hû-hō.

1987 nî khai-sí hoat-hêng ê Ainu Sî-pò (アイヌタイムズ) 2 chióng bûn-jī ê bûn-chiuⁿ lóng ū thê-kiong.

yukar: kháu-thoân bûn-ha̍k.

Koh-oa̍h ūn-tōng[siu-kái]

Chêng-jīm siú-siòng Nakasone Yasuhiro1986 nî seng-bêng kóng, Ji̍t-pún bô chió-sò͘ bîn-cho̍k. Ainu jîn-sū jīn-ûi chit ê sū-kiāⁿ tùi in ê ūn-tōng ū le̍k-sú-te̍k ê ì-gī. Chit kù oē mā hoán-èng chhut Ji̍t-pún kòe-khì 200-tang í-lâi ê tông-hòa chèng-chhek. Maher (2001) jīn-ûi chō-chiâⁿ Ainu-gú liû-sit ê in-sò͘ tùi 19 sè-kí chho͘-kî khai-sí tī teh, kàu-kah 20 sè-kí boán-kî chiah bô chok-iōng.

Kayano Sigeru (萱野茂) sī koh-oa̍h ūn-tōng ê tiong-sim jîn-bu̍t. Pak-hái-tō Utari Hia̍p-hōe (北海道ウタリ協会) sī chú-iàu ê cho·-chit chi it.

  • 1983 nî: Ainu "bîn-kan-kò͘-sū-ka" kiam chèng-tī jîn-bu̍t Kayano Sigeru tī Pak-hái-tō khui tē-1-mn̂g Ainu-gú ê khò.
  • 1987 nî: Pak-hái-tō chèng-hú, tiong-iong chèng-hú khai-sí chàn-chō͘ Ainu-gú khò-têng (アイヌ語教室).
  • 1989 nî: Tē-it-kài Ainu-gú Piān-lūn Tāi-hōe tī Tang-kiaⁿ kí-pān.
  • 1993 nî, Liân-ha̍p-kok Kok-chè Goân-chū-bîn Nî, tòa lâi sin tōng-le̍k.
  • 1994 nî: Kayano Sigeru chiâⁿ-chò tē-1-ê ji̍p Kok-hōe ê Ainu-lâng. I iōng Ainu-gú hoat-piáu chiū-jīm ián-káng. Siâng-hit-nî, tē-1-pún hiān-tāi kàu-kho-su chhut-pán, hō͘-chò Akor Itak (Lán ê Oē).
  • 1997 nî: chèng-hú khai-sí si̍t-hêng Ainu Sin-hoat (choân-miâ: アイヌ文化の振興並びにアイヌの伝統等に関する知識の普及及び啓発に関する法律). Pak-hái-tō Sapporo Hoat-īⁿ soan-pò͘ kúi-nā-hāng iú-lī Ainu-lâng ê koat-gī, kî-tiong pau-koah ū jīm-tēng Ainu-lâng sī goân-chū-bîn, sek-iōng Liân-ha̍p-kok Kong-bîn kap Chèng-tī Koân-lī Kok-chè Kong-iok tē-27-tiâu kap Ji̍t-pún hiàn-hoat tē-13-tiâu.

Kàu-io̍k[siu-kái]

Bo̍k-chêng sió-ha̍k kap tiong-ha̍k lóng bô Ainu-gú ê khò. Pak-hái-tō ū kúi-nā-keng tāi-ha̍k ū siat Ainu-gú ê khò-têng. Koan-tang tē-khu mā ū tāi-ha̍k ū teh kà Ainu-gú:

1987 nî khai-sí ū tē-hng siā-khu thoân-thé tī in ê siā-khu tiong-sim siat Ainu Kàu-sek. Kāng hit nî Pak-hái-tō STV tiān-tâi khai-sí hòng-sàng Ainu-gú La-jí-o͘h Káng-chō chit ê khong-tiong kàu-ha̍k chiat-bo̍k.

Kàu-châi tùi 1980 nî-tāi ū ta̍uh-ta̍uh-á teh hoat-tián, lia̍p-chek.

Chham-khó chu-liāu[siu-kái]

Maher, J. C. 2001. Akor Itak – our language, your Language: Ainu in Japan. Tī Joshua A. Fishman (pian) ê Can threatened languages be saved? Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Gōa-pō͘ liân-kiat[siu-kái]