Sè-pau

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Pôe-ióng ê sè-pau, keratin chò âng-sek, DNA ní chò chheⁿ-sek.

Sè-pau (Hàn-jī: 細胞; Eng-gí: cell) sī seng-bu̍t ê kiat-kò͘ kap kong-lêng tan-ūi, ū-tang-sî-á kā kiò-chò "khí-chò seng-but ê chng-á-thâu (building block of life)." Gián-kiú sè-pau ê ha̍k-kho kiò-chò sè-pau seng-bu̍t-ha̍k.

Chi̍t-kóa seng-bu̍t sī ko·-chi̍t-ê sè-pau chó͘ cho͘-sêng, hō-chò toaⁿ-sè-pau seng-bu̍t, chhan-chhiūⁿ sè-khún. Kî-thaⁿ seng-bu̍t sī to-sè-pau--ê, chhan-chhiūⁿ jîn-lūi. Jîn-lūi tāi-khài ū 100-tiāu (1014) ê sè-pau. Tián-hêng sè-pau ê tōa-sè sī 10 µm, chit-liōng sī 1 nanogram.

1839Schleiden kap Schwann tāi-seng the̍h-chhut sè-pau lí-lūn, kóng só͘-ū seng-bu̍t sī iû 1-ê he̍k to-ê sè-pau lâi cho͘-sêng; só͘-ū sè-pau lâi-chū chìn-chêng chûn-chāi ê sè-pau; seng-bu̍t só·-ū tiōng-iàu ê kong-lêng hoat-seng chāi sè-pau lāi-té, ah sè-pau ū-hâm tiâu-chiat sè-pau kong-lêng kap thoân-thòaⁿ sìn-sit hō͘ āu-tāi só· su-iàu ê ûi-thoân sìn-sit.

Eng-gí cell chit jī sī ùi La-teng-gí cella lâi--ê, ì-sù sī sè keng pâng-keng. Che miâ sī Robert Hooke soán--ê, i koan-chhat cork sè-pau, hoat-hiān kah seng-lī (僧侶, monks) só͘ tòa ê sè-keng pâng-keng beh-sio-siâng.

Ū-lâng (Lynn Margulis kap Dorian Sagan, 1995) hun-hōe hoán-tùi sè-pau sī seng-bu̍t siāng-sè ê kò͘-sêng tan-ūi.

Sè-pau ê lūi-hêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Sè-pau ū hun nn̄g chióng: chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê sè-pau ū chi̍t lia̍p sè-pau-hu̍t tī-leh, goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê sè-pau tō bô sè-pau-hu̍t. Goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t lóng sī toaⁿ-sè-pau seng-bu̍t, tān chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t khó-lêng sī toaⁿ-sè-pau, mā ū khó-lêng sī to-sè-pau seng-bu̍t.

Goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê sè-pau[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t pau-koa sè-khún kap kó͘-sè-khún. Goân-hu̍t sè-pau sī tē-kiû-téng sèⁿ-miā siōng chá ê hêng-sek, in ē-tàng chìn-hêng chi̍t-kóa-á ûi-chhî sèⁿ-miā ê seng-bu̍t-ha̍k kòe-têng, chhiūⁿ sè-pau-sìn-hō. In pí chin-hu̍t sè-pau khah kan-tan, mā khah sè-lia̍p, jî-chhiáⁿ bô sè-pau-hu̍t kap kî-tha ū mo̍͘h ê sè-pau-khì. Goân-hu̍t sè-pau ê ûi-thoân bu̍t-chit, DNA, sī chi̍t tiâu khoân-chōng ê jiám-sek-thé, i ti̍t-chiap chìm tī-leh sè-pau-chit lāi-té. Chit-ê ū DNA ê sè-pau-chit kiò-chò lūi-hu̍t-thé. Tāi-pō͘-hūn ê goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t lóng sī siōng sè-hàn ê chi̍t khoán oa̍h-mi̍h, in ê sin-khu ti̍t-kèng kan-na 0.5 kàu 2.0 µm niā-niā.

Chi̍t ê goân-hu̍t sè-pau ū saⁿ ê khu-he̍k:

  • Pau-ûi sè-pau ê mi̍h-kiāⁿ sī kiò-chò sè-pau-gōa-thò – che it-poaⁿ pau-hâm kúi-nā chân, siōng lāi-bīn sī sè-pau-mo̍͘h, tē-jī chân sī sè-pau-piah, chi̍t-kóa-á sè-khún ê gōa-piáu koh ū chi̍t chân kiò-chò ngeh-mo̍͘h. Sui-jiân to-sò͘ goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t lóng ū sè-pau-mo̍͘h kap sè-pau-piah chit nn̄g chióng, tān iā-sī ū lē-gōa, phì-lūn Mycoplasma (chi̍t chióng sè-khún) kap Thermoplasma (chi̍t chióng kó͘-sè-khún), in tō kan-na ū chi̍t chân sè-pau-mo̍͘h niā.
  • Sè-pau lāi-té sī sè-pau-chit, koh-ū DNA, hu̍t-thn̂g-thé, kap chiok chē chióng ê pau-āⁿ. Goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t koh ū jiám-sek-thé í-gōa ê DNA, hō-chò chit-thé, in it-poaⁿ lóng sī khoân-chōng.
  • Sè-pau gōa-kháu, piáu-bīn khó-lêng koh ē seⁿ-chhut piⁿ-mo͘ (Eng-gí: flagellum) kap sèng-khún-mo͘ (Eng-gí: pilus). Chia-ê kiat-kò͘ sī nn̄g-pe̍h-chit chò--ê, in ê chok-iōng sī hō͘ sè-pau ē tín-tāng, iah-sī hō͘ sè-pau chi-kan ē-tàng thong siau-sek.

Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê sè-pau[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Si̍t-bu̍t, tōng-bu̍t, chin-khún, liâm-khún, goân-seng-tōng-bu̍t, chó-lūi lóng sī chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t. In sè-pau ê thé-chek pí it-poaⁿ ê goân-hu̍t sè-pau tōa chha-put-to cha̍p-gō͘ pōe, sīm-chì chheng-pōe í-siōng lóng ū. chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t chú-iàu ê te̍k-sek tō sī in ū goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t só͘ bô ê sè-pau-hun-khu, tō sī hō͘ mo̍͘h keh-khui ê sè-pau-khì (hun-khu), chi̍t-kóa-á tek-pia̍t ê oa̍h-tāng ē tī hia chìn-hêng. Sè-pau-hu̍t sī siōng tiōng-iàu ê sè-pau-khì, i sī DNA ê chhù. Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê miâ tō sī án-ne lâi ê: in-ūi i sī "chin-chiàⁿ ū hu̍t--ê." Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t kap goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t kî-tha ê chha-pia̍t koh ū:

  • In nn̄g chióng ê sè-pau-mo̍͘h kong-lêng chha-put-to lóng kāng-khoán, tān kiat-kò͘ ū sió-khóa-á bô-kâng. Koh ū, chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t bô-it-tēng ū sè-pau-piah.
  • Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê DNA sī pak kah tn̂g-tn̂g ê chit tiâu iah-sī kúi-nā tiâu, kiò-chò jiám-sek-thé, in kah chó͘-chit-nn̄g-pe̍h ū koan-hē. Só͘-ū ê jiám-sek-thé DNA lóng khǹg tī sè-pau-hu̍t, iōng chi̍t chân mo̍͘h hām sè-pau-chit hun-khui. Chi̍t-kóa-á chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê sè-pau-khì mā ū DNA, phì-jū-kóng soàⁿ-lia̍p-thé.
  • Chiok chē chin-hu̍t sè-pau lóng ū chho͘-kip-siam-mo͘ (Eng-gí: primary cilium), chit chióng siam-mo͘ hō͘ sè-pau ē-sái kám-siū--tio̍h hòa-ha̍k-sèng, ki-hâi-sèng, kap un-tō͘ ê chhì-kek, khiā-sǹg-kóng sī sè-pau ê chhiok-kak.
  • Ē tín-tāng ê chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ē-sái iōng ūn-tōng-siam-mo͘ (Eng-gí: motile cilium) ia̍h-sī piⁿ-mo͘ lāi tín-tāng. Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê piⁿ-mo͘ pí goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t--ê koh-khah ho̍k-cha̍p.
Tián-hêng tōng-bu̍t sè-pau ê kiat-kò͘
Tián-hêng si̍t-bu̍t sè-pau ê kiat-kò͘

Sè-pau ê chó͘-chit[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Sè-pau-mo̍͘h[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Siông-sè: Sè-pau-mo̍͘h

Sè-pau-mo̍͘h sī pau-ûi sè-pau-chit ê mo̍͘h. Tùi tōng-bu̍t lâi kóng, sè-pau-mo̍͘h sī sè-pau ê kài-hān, m̄-kò si̍t-bu̍t, goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê sè-pau-mo̍͘h it-poaⁿ lóng hō͘ sè-pau-piah pau--khí-lâi. Chit chân mo̍͘h ê bo̍k-tek sī hun-keh sè-pau ê lāi-té kap gōa-kháu, mā ē-sái pó-hō͘ sè-pau.

Sè-pau-mo̍͘h siông-sè ê kiat-kò͘ chú-iàu sī siang-chân lîn-chi-chit, i chit chióng bu̍t-chit ê hòa-ha̍k te̍k-sèng sī pō͘-hūn chhin-chúi, pō͘-hūn chhin-iû, só͘-í hō-chò "lióng-chhin" (Eng-gí: amphiphilic). Ū chi̍t-kóa-á tōa-hêng hun-chú kiat-kò͘ chhah tī sè-pau-mo̍͘h téng-bīn: khang-á-thé (Eng-gí: porosome), thóng-it hun-pì mi̍h-kiāⁿ ê chhut-kháu, koh ū chē-chē chióng nn̄g-pe̍h-chit thong-tō, in chhan-chhiūⁿ phòng-phù kāng-khoán, kok-chióng hun-chú

Sè-pau-kut[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Siông-sè: Sè-pau-kut

Sè-pau-kut ê chok-iōng sī chó͘-chit kap ûi-chhî sè-pau ê hêng-chōng; kā sè-pau-khì pa̍k hō͘ tiâu; hia̍p-chō͘ lāi-thun-chok-iōng (sè-pau liap gōa-kháu mi̍h-kiāⁿ ê kòe-têng) kap sè-pau-chit-hun-lia̍t (sè-pau-hun-lia̍t ê bóe-á, kā nn̄g-pêng hun keh-piah ê kòe-têng). Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t ê sè-pau-kut sī bî-siam-ûi, tiong-kan-siam-ûi kap bî-sè-kńg kò͘-sêng--ê.

Ki-in bu̍t-chit[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Sè-pau ū nn̄g chióng ki-in bu̍t-chit: thoat-sng-hu̍t-thn̂g hu̍t-sng (kán-chheng DNA) kap hu̍t-thn̂g hu̍t-sng (kán-chheng RNA).

DNA sī iōng-lâi kì-chài tn̂g-kî ê ûi-thoân chu-sìn, tō chhan-chhiūⁿ chi̍t pún àm-hō ê chheh.

RNA ū hun saⁿ-chióng:

Ki-in bu̍t-chit ē-sái chhut-hiān tī chia-ê só͘-chai:

Sè-pau-khì[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Siông-sè: Sè-pau-khì

Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Goân-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t kap Chin-hu̍t-seng-bu̍t[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Sè-pau ê kòe-têng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]