Tâi-oân-ōe

Wikipedia (chū-iû ê pek-kho-choân-su) beh kā lí kóng...
(Tùi Tâi-gí choán--lâi)
Thiàu khì: se̍h chām, chhiau-chhoē
"Tâi-gí" choán koè chia. Chhoē kî-tha ēng-hoat, khoàⁿ Tâi-gí (khu-pia̍t-ia̍h).
2010 nî Tâi-pêⁿ Kim-má chiàu hêng-chèng-kuh chò kài-sòaⁿ kì-lio̍k, tī chhù-lāi kóng ê ōe ū pau-koat Hô-ló-oē--ê jîn-khâu pí-lē (hâm kóng chē chióng ōe--ê, pí-lūn Hō-ló-ōe kiam Hôa-gí), 50% í-hā m̄ tio̍k-sek (著色).

Tâi-oân-oē, he̍k-chiá kiò Tâi-gí (-gú) ia̍h Tâi-oân-gí (-gú), sī chú-iàu tī Tâi-oân liû-thong ê chi̍t khoán giân-gí, sǹg sī Bân-lâm-gí ê hun-chi chi it, sī Tâi-oân 60% jîn-kháu thoân-thóng-siōng ê bú-gí.

Hō-miâ[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Ùi Tâi-oân-ōe pún-sin ê iōng-gí, tùi pún giân-gí ê hō-miâ kî-tiong chi̍t khoán sī Hō-ló-ōe;[1][2] "Hō-ló" chit-ê khài-liām, chiàu ho͘-im ia̍h ū kóng "Ho̍h-ló", khó-lêng ê lâi-goân sī Kńg-tang-hē ê Kheh-lâng ia̍h Kńg-hú-lâng tùi Tiô-chiu téng tha-cho̍k ê chheng-ho͘, ùi Ho̍k-kiàn khah hán lâng chai.[3]

Tī ha̍k-su̍t-kài it-poaⁿ ê jīn-sek lāi-bīn, Tâi-oân-ōe sǹg Bân-lâm-gí chi̍t chióng, chóng-sī Tâi-oân-ōe ēng-chiá pún-sin tī kháu-gí siōng khah hán teh ēng "Bân-lâm-gí" chheng-ho͘ ka-tī tng teh kóng ê giân-gí. Ùi chit khoán hō-miâ, nā te̍k-pia̍t chí-miâ Tâi-oân ê hun-chi, thang kóng Tâi-oân Bân-lâm-gí. Lēng-gōa tī chi̍t kóa tiûⁿ-ha̍p, "Tâi-oân-gí", "Tâi-gí" téng iōng-gí, hông ēng-lâi chí kok khoán Tâi-oân ê giân-gí chéng-thé.

Hun-lūi tē-ūi kap cho͘-sêng[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Bân-lâm-gú thoân-thóng siōng tiāⁿ hông kóng sī chi̍t-ê hong-giân.[2] M̄-koh nā khó-lū tio̍h ho͘-siōng hui-lí-kái-sèng (mutual unintelligibility), Bân-lâm-gí sī sǹg Hàn gí-cho̍k (Sinitic family; sio̍k Hàn-Chōng gí-hē chi̍t hūn) ē-té ê chi̍t khoán giân-gí.[4]

Kun-kù Âng Ûi-jîn ián-kiù só͘ ōe ê tē-tô͘:
  Khah óa Choân-chiu-ōe ê khiuⁿ-kháu
  Khah óa Chiang-chiu-ōe ê khiuⁿ-kháu
  Choân-Chiang saⁿ-lām ê khiuⁿ-kháu

Kīn-taⁿ Tâi-oân-ōe ê chú-liû khiuⁿ-kháu, chú-iàu sī chi̍t khoán Chiang-choân-lām, ia̍h chiū sī goân-lâi tī Tâi-oân hun-pia̍t liû-thong tī pō͘-hūn tē-hng ê Chiang-chiu-ōe kap Choân-chiu-ōe nn̄g khoán ōe saⁿ-lām liáu-āu sán-seng--ê.[5] Tû-liáu Chiân-Choân ê lâi-goân, Tiô-chiu-ōe mā chiàm liáu chin chió-hūn ê éng-hióng, Tiô-chiū-hē ê jîn-kûn tī Tâi-oân ē-tàng kóng í-keng iông ji̍p chāi-tē Hō-ló-lâng lāi-bīn.[6]

Kap Ho̍k-kiàn he̍k-chiá sī Lâm-iûⁿ téng kî-tha Bân-lâm-gí hun-chi khah bô kâng ê pō͘-hūn chi it, sī Tâi-oân-ōe khah chē lâi-chū Ji̍t-pún-ōe he̍k-chiá sī keng-kòe Ji̍t-pún-ōe thoân ji̍p ê gōa-lâi-gú,[7] lēng-gōa ia̍h ū chió hūn Lâm-tó gí-hē ê sêng-hun, kap pō͘-hūn in-ūi Hô-lân[8] kap Tēⁿ--sī kiam Chheng-kok[9] thóng-tī téng te̍k-sû le̍k-sú pōe-kéng éng-hióng sán-seng ê sû-lūi kap ho͘-im. Chiàn-āu, kap Hôa-gí chiap-chhio̍k ê Tâi-gí koh chìn-chi̍t-pō͘ siū éng-hióng sán-seng chi̍t kóa gú-im kap Hàn-jī-sû ho͘-im bûn-pe̍h soán-te̍k ê piàn-hòa.[10]

Gí-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chú-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Thâu-im
Siang-tûn-im Khí-gûn-im Khí-gûn
chhùi-kòa-im
Nńg-chhùi-kòa-im Siaⁿ-mn̂g-im
Iú-seng Bû-seng Iú-seng Bû-seng Iú-seng Bû-seng Iú-seng Bû-seng
Phīⁿ-im [m]
m
[n]
n
[ŋ]
nng
That-im bû-khì [p]
p
[b]
b
[t]
t
[k]
k
[g]
g
iú-khì [pʰ]
ph
[tʰ]
th
[kʰ]
kh
Sat-chhat-im bû-khì [ts]
ch,ts
[dz]
j
[]
ch(i),ts(i)
[]
j(i)
iú-khì [tsʰ]
chh,tsh
[tɕʰ]
chh(i),tsh(i)
Bôa-chhat-im [s]
s
[ɕ]
si
[h]
h
Piⁿ-im [l]
l
Bóe-im
Siang-tûn-im Khí-gûn-im Velar Glottal
Phīⁿ-im [m]
-m
[n]
-n
[ŋ]
-ng
[◌̃]
-ⁿ,-N
Phòa-im [p̚]
-p
[t̚]
-t
[k̚]
-k
[ʔ]
-h
  1. Chi̍h-téng sat-chhat chú-im and bôa-chhat-im ùi /i/ thâu-chêng ē piàn khí-gûn chhùi-kòa-im, ia̍h chiō sī kóng /dzi/, /tsi/, /tsʰi/, kap /si/ hông ho͘ chò [dʑi], [tɕi], [tɕʰi], kap [ɕi].
  2. Chú-im /dz/ ū khó-lêng hông lí-kái chò bôa-chhat-im; ia̍h chiō tōa-hūn tiûⁿ-ha̍p sī hông tòng chò [z], tī /i/ thâu-chêng koh chò [ʑ].
  3. Tī chi̍t kóa chêng-hêng, Iú-siaⁿ phòa-im (/b/ kap /ɡ/) hun-pia̍t piàn bôa-chhat-im ([β] kap [ɣ]).

Bó-im[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chiân Tiong-im Āu-im Im-chat chú-im
Oral Phīⁿ-im Kháu Kháu Phīⁿ
Ha̍p-im [i]
i
[ĩ]
iⁿ
[u]
u
[ũ]
uⁿ
[m̩]
m
[ŋ̍]
ng
Pòaⁿ-khui-im [e]
e
[ẽ]
eⁿ
[ə], [o]
o
[ɔ]
[ɔ̃]
oⁿ
Khui-im [a]
a
[ã]
aⁿ

Bó-im o ū nn̄g khoán ho͘-im. Lâm-pō͘ chhiūⁿ Ko-hiông Tâi-lâm téng só͘-chāi chú-iàu ho͘ [ə] im; tī Tâi-pak chú-iàu ho͘ [o].

Chù-kái[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Chham-chiàu[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

Su-chì[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  • Ding, Picus Sizhi (2016). Southern Min Hokkien as a Migrating Language: A Comparative Study of Language Shift and Maintenance Across National Borders (ēng Eng-gí). Springer Singapore. ISBN 978-981-287-594-5. 

Chù-kha[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]

  1. Chiúⁿ Ûi-bûn (2015). "Taiwanese or Southern Min? On the Controversy of Ethnolinguistic Names in Taiwan". 台語研究 (ēng Eng-gí) 7 (1). 
  2. 2.0 2.1 李勤岸 (2007 nî 5 goe̍h). "沒有名字的語言?「台灣話」、「閩南話」還是Ho̍h-ló話?—找回我們的名字". 台灣文學館通訊 (15). 
  3. 洪惟仁 (2007 nî 5 goe̍h). "沒有名字的語言?「台灣話」、「閩南話」還是Ho̍h-ló話?—排除誤解,尋求共識". 台灣文學館通訊 (15). 
  4. Ding 2016, Chapter 1. Introduction
  5. 洪惟仁 (2013). "臺灣的語種分佈與區劃". 人文與社會科學簡訊 (ēng Hôa-gí) 14 (2). 
  6. Ding 2016, Chapter 4. Taiwan: The Haven for Southern Min?
  7. 張玉萍 (2014). "1930年代台灣歌仔冊內底ê日語借詞". 台語研究 6 (2). 
  8. 邱馨慧 (2013). "從近代初期季風亞洲的荷蘭語學習看臺灣荷蘭時代的殖民地語言現象與遺緒". 臺灣史研究 (ēng Hôa-gí) 20 (1). 
  9. 黃秀仍 & 曾春潮 (2006). "明鄭清領時期臺灣閩南語的形成-兼論在臺灣閩南語史分期的定位". 遠東學報 (ēng Hôa-gí) 22 (2). 
  10. 李淑鳳 (2010). "台、華語接觸所引起的台語語音的變化趨勢". 台語研究 2 (1). 

Liân-kiat[siu-kái | kái goân-sú-bé]