Bân-lâm-gú

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Bân-lâm-gí ê hun-pò͘ .

Bân-lâm-gí (閩南語) sī Hàn-gí Bân-hong-giân chit-châng tōa chhiūⁿ-châng ê 1-ki chhiū-oe, sī siōng-kài ū éng-hiáng-la̍t ê Bân-hong-giân. Kóng-gī ê Bân-lâm-gí hun-pò· hōan-ûi chiâⁿ khoah, chú-iàu thong-hêng tī Hok-kiàn lâm-pō· ê Chiang-chiu, Chôan-chiu, Ē-mn̂g; Tâi-ôan, Kńg-tang Tiô-chiu, Sòaⁿ-thau tē-khu, Lûi-chiu pòan-tó; Hái-lâm-tó; Chiat-kang-séng lâm-pō· ê Chhong-lâm-kōan, Pêng-iông-kōan, Tōng-thâu-kōan ; Hok-kiàn sai-pō· Lêng-nâ (Hàn-jī: 龍巖) ê chhī-khu kah Chiang-pêng-kōan; Hok-kiàn tang-pak-pō· ê Hok-tiáⁿ-chhī; Tang-lâm-a chi̍t-kóa-á kok-ka kah tē-khu.

Nā phó·-thong-sî lâng kóng Bân-lâm-gí, Bân-lâm-gí, he thàu-té sī leh kóng Hok-kiàn lâm-pō· Chôan-Chiang- tē-khu kah Tâi-ôan chit-tah ê gí-giân.

Kòe-khì tī Tiong-kok Chheng-tiâu ê sî-tāi, Se-iûⁿ lâng kā Bân-lâm-gú kiò-chò Amoy (che sī Eng-gí, sī Ē-mn̂g ê piàn-im). Tī tang-lâm-a, Bân-lâm-gú hō·-lâng kiò-chòe "Hokkien" (Hok-kiàn-oē ê ì-sù), tī Tâi-ôan kiò-chò Hō-ló-ōe, Tâi-oân-oē, Tâi-gí (Tâi-gú). Tī Hiong-káng mā kiò Ē-gí ("Ē-m̂g-oē" ê ì-sù).

Bân-lâm-gú hoat-gôan-tē ( siāng gôan-thâu ê só·-chāi ) si Hok-kiàn lâm-pō· ê Chiang-chiu kah Chôan-chiu chit nn̄g-ê só·-chāi.

Ē-mn̂g-ōe kah Tâi-ôan-ōe hō· lâng kong-jīn sī Bân-lâm-gí ê phiau-chún. Tī Hái-lâm, iōng Bûn-chhiong-oē chòe tāi-piáu.

Pó·-liû kó·-Hàn-gú ê sêng-hūn[siu-kái]

Chú-im[siu-kái]

Bân-lâm-gú ê chú-im (siaⁿ-bó) ti̍t-chiap kè-sêng Siōng-kó· Hàn-gú (上古漢語) ê siaⁿ-bó hē-thóng, tī chit hong-bīn lâi kóng, Bân-lâm-gú pēng bô siū tio̍h Tiong-kó· sî-kî Hàn-gú-hē gú-im ián-piàn ê éng-hiáng. Hiān-chú-sî, lâng phó·-piàn jīn-ûi Siōng-kó· Hàn-gú ū 19-ê siaⁿ-bó. Àn-chiàu thôan-thóng ê Bân-lâm-gú si̍p-ngó·-im (十五音) lâi hun-sek, hoat-hiān Bân-lâm-gú ê siaⁿ-bó ū 15 ê, iā-to̍h-sī kóng Siōng-kó· Hàn-gú 19 ê, Bân-lâm-gú kā pó-liû 15 ê.

Siōng-kó· Hàn-gú ū chi̍t-kóa-á te̍k-tiám : ①"bô khin-tûn-im" (古無輕唇); ②"bô chi̍h-téng-im" (古無舌上音); ③"kāu chi̍h-á-im" (古多舌音)....Chiah-ê tiōng-iàu ê kó·-tāi Hàn-gú gú-im hiān-siōng, Bân-lâm-gú kā pó-chûn kah chiâⁿ hó-sè, taⁿ lâi tùi-èng téng-kôan Siōng-kó· Hàn-gú ê te̍k-tiám, chi̍t-tiâu chi̍t-tiâu lâi hun-sek : ① Bân-lâm-gú kā "非組" kah "幫組" tha̍k kāng im ( to̍h-sī siaⁿ-bó tha̍k kāng im ), pí-lūn kóng "飛" ( [pue44] / [pe44] ), "蓬" ( [p‘aŋ24] ), "吠" ( [pui22] ), "微" ( [bi24] ); ② "知組", Bân-lâm-gú ê tha̍k-hoat hām "端組" sio-siâng, pí-lūn "猪" ( [ti44] / [tu44] / [tɯ44]), "醜" ( [t‘iu53] ), "程" ( [t‘iŋ24] ); ③ Bân-lâm-gú kā chiâⁿ chōe "章组" ê jī, tha̍k kah "端組" kāng-khóan, chhan-chhiūⁿ "唇" ( [tun24] ), "振" ( [tin53] ) "召" ( [tiau22] ), "注" ( [tu21] ).

Bó-im kah siaⁿ-tiāu[siu-kái]

Bân-lâm-gú ê bó-im kah siaⁿ-tiāu, thé-hiān Tiong-kó·-im (中古音) ê te̍k-tiám. Bó-im lâi kóng, Bân-lâm-gú ôan-chéng pó-chûn Tiong-kó·-im 6-ê hú-im-ūn ūn-bóe, kî-tiong [-p], [-t], [-k] sī sat-im (塞音), [-m][-n][- ŋ] sī phīⁿ-im.

Siaⁿ-tiāu hong-bīn, Tiong-kó·-im "pêng, siōng, khì, ji̍p" pun im-iông ê te̍k-tiám chôan-pō· tī Bân-lâm-gú lāi-té tit-tio̍h thé-hiān. Chiang-chiu-khiuⁿ ū "im-pêng, im-siōng, im-khì, im-ji̍p, iông-pêng, iông-khì, iông-ji̍p" 7-ê tiāu; Chôan-chiu-khiuⁿ iáu-koh ke pó-chûn "iông-siōng" tiāu.

Sû-gí[siu-kái]

Chit-chūn Bân-lâm-gú ê sû-gí, ū chiâⁿ chōe sio̍k-î Kó·-Hàn-gú ê sêng-hūn, siōng kó·-chá ē-tàng khan khì kàu Chhun-Chhiu, Chiàn-kok ê nî-tāi, pí-lūn kóng Bân-lâm sio̍k-gú "ji̍t--sî cháu-phā-phā, àm--sî tiám teng-la̍h", chit lāi-tóe ê "la̍h" to̍h-sī hit-ê sî-tāi ê giân-gí (《詩經·小雅·信南山》有: "執其鸞刀,以啟其毛,取其血"). Koh pí-lūn kóng "saⁿ-khó·", "lâng-kheh", "thàn-chîⁿ", "bîn-chhn̂g", "chiaⁿ-bah", "kún-chúi"…téng-téng, che lóng-sī Tông, Sòng í-lâi Kó·-Hàn-gú ê iōng-sû.

Bân-lâm-gú chi̍t-kóa-á kò·-sû ê hong-sek hām hiān-tāi Hôa-gú tú-hó tian-tò-péng, put-jî-kò soah hām Kó·-Hàn-gú sio-siâng, chhan-chhiūⁿ "ah-bó", "hong-thai", "lâng-kheh", "chhin-tông", "kha-chhiú"……

Kó·-tāi Bân-oa̍t-gú ê sêng-hūn[siu-kái]

Bân-lâm-gú ê hêng-sêng sī kó·-tāi Tiong-gôan Hàn-gú hām kó·-tāi Bân-oa̍t-cho̍k gú-giân sio-thàu-lām ê kòe-thêng. Hiān-chú-sî, Bân-lâm-gú lāi-té iu-gôan koh pó-liû tio̍h chōe-chōe kó·-tāi Bân-oa̍t-gú ê sêng-hūn, pí-lūn kóng "ka-cháu", "ka-cho̍ah", "ka-lēng", "tō·-kâu", "tō·-ún", "káu-hiā", "ka-lún-sún", "phah-kha-chhiùⁿ","tio̍h-ka-cha̍k"……

Gōa-lâi-gú ê chioh-sû[siu-kái]

Ùi Tông-tiâu ê sî-tāi khai-sí, Chôan-chiu to̍h hoat-tián chiâⁿ-chòe "tang-hong tē-it tōa-káng", kó·-tāi hái-siōng si-tiû chi-lō· ê khí-tiám tī Chôan-chiu. Chhú-khì, Bân-lâm chit-tah hām Tiong-tang, Tang-lâm-a ê lâi-óng ke-chiâⁿ chia̍p. Kòe-hoan ê hoan-kheh chiong gōa-hiuⁿ ê gí-giân chah tńg-lâi Hok-kiàn, nî-kú-go̍eh-chhim, ū ê gōa-lâi-gú ê gí-sû soah lām-lo̍h Bân-lâm-gú, chiâⁿ-chòe Bân-lâm-gú ê chi̍t-pō·-hūn. Chit-khóan--ê, pí-lūn "sat-bûn", "pa-sat" (巴刹), "chi-ku-la̍t" (巧克力), "chu-lu̍t" (雪茄), "phia̍t-á" (碟子), "tōng-kak" (拐杖), "si̍p-pán-á" (鐵板手), "ba̍k-thâu" (商標), "àu-sài" (出界), "te̍k-sî" (出租車), "pa-sū" (巴士車), má-tih (死亡), "gō·-kha-kī" (騎樓過廊), "ka-po̍k" / "ka-pò·-mî" (木棉), "ko-pi" (咖啡) téng-téng.

Tâi-ôan Bân-lâm-gí ū koh-khah chē ê gōa-lâi-gí chioh-sû, kî-tiong siōng chē--ê sī Ji̍t-gí chioh-sû, pí-lūn kóng: o·-tó·-bái, khí-mo·-chih, chu-ná-mih, tò-sàng, sa-sí-mih… Che í-gōa, ôan-á khip-siu chi̍t-kóa Pêⁿ-po·-cho̍k-gí kah kî-thaⁿ gōa-gí ê sêng-hūn.

Chhù-bī koh ho̍k-cha̍p ê bûn-pe̍h ī-tho̍k[siu-kái]

Tī Hàn-gú-hē kok gú-giân tong-tiong, beh kóng "bûn-pe̍h ī-tho̍k " ê hiān-siōng, Bân-lâm-gú iāng ho̍k-cha̍p. "bûn" to̍h-sī "bûn-tho̍k-im" a̍h-sī kóng "tha̍k-chheh-im", "pe̍h" tāi-piáu "kháu-gí-im" a̍h-sī "pe̍h-ōe-im". Bân-lâm-gú ê "tha̍k-chheh-im" kah "kháu-gí-im", ē-sái kóng sī 2-ê hō·-siong tùi-èng ê hē-thóng. Bûn, pe̍h hē-thóng ê hêng-sêng sī chi̍t-tōaⁿ chin-chiàⁿ ho̍k-cha̍p ê le̍k-sú kòe-thêng. Bân-lâm-gú ê bûn-pe̍h ī-tho̍k, kú-lē jû-hā:

Hàn-jī bûn-tho̍k-im pe̍h-ōe-im
sêng siâⁿ, chiâⁿ, chhiâⁿ
siōng / siāng chiūⁿ, chhiūⁿ
chiang chiuⁿ, cheng

Bân-lâm-gí phèng-im hû-hō (a̍h-sī phèng-im bûn-jī ) ê thâu-cháng[siu-kái]

Múi chi̍t-chióng jîn-lūi gú-giân lóng ū ka-tī ê im-phiau hē-thóng, bo̍k-chiân, múi chi̍t-chióng gú-giân ê im-phiau hē-thóng lóng sú-iōng hû-hō lâi kì-lio̍k. Ū-ê gú-giân ê im-phiau hē-thóng siâng-sî chûn-chāi kúi-nā-chióng " phèng-im hû-hō ", pí-lūn kóng Bân-lâm-gú.

Se-kài kok-tē ê ha̍k-chiá tùi " Phèng-im hû-hō " ê lōe-hâm, ū bô kāng-khóan ê lí-kài. Ū-ê lâng chú-tiuⁿ kā " Phèng-im hû-hō " tòng-chòe bûn-jī lâi khòaⁿ-thāi, put-jî-kò mā ū lâng hóan-tùi.

Tâi-ôan ū chiâⁿ chē gú-giân ha̍k-chiá chú-tiuⁿ Bân-lâm-gí phèng-im hû-hō mā sī bûn-jī, pí-lūn kóng Pe̍h-oē-jī to̍h-sī tang-tiong ê chi̍t-chióng. Sū-si̍t, àn-chiàu le̍k-sú ê kak-tō· lâi khòaⁿ, Pe̍h-oē-jī chêng-kàu-taⁿ lóng sī hō·-lâng tòng-chò bûn-jī teh sú-iōng, chí-put-kò, Pe̍h-oē-jī oân-á kū-pī phèng-im ê kong-lêng, só·-í ū-sî Pe̍h-oē-jī iū-koh pān-ián tio̍h im-phiau ê kak-sek.

Tâi-ôan ê Bân-lâm-gí im-phiau[siu-kái]

Taⁿ Bân-lâm-gí ê im-phiau siāng-chió chhiau-kòe 64 chióng ( Iûⁿ Ún-giân / Tiuⁿ Ha̍k-khiam, 1999 nî ), ē-sái kóng sī "pah-pah-khóan". Ū-ê iōng chù-im hû-hō, ū-ê iōng Ji̍t-bûn ê Kha-na ( Hàn-jī: 仮名, pau-koah ひらがな kah カタカナ ), koh ū-ê iōng Gān-bûn (Hàn-jī:諺文) hû-hō... Ah siāng-kài chē--ê sī sú-iōng Lô-má-jī. Chóng--sī, bo̍k-chiân lóng iáu-bōe thóng-it. Chōe-chōe chióng phèng-im tang-tiong, siāng-kài sîⁿ-kiâⁿ, sú-iōng jîn-kháu siāng-kài chē--ê, chú-iàu sī Lô-má-jī ê Pe̍h-ōe-jī ( Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī ), TLPA kah Tong-iōng Phèng-im. Chit 3 chióng phèng-im, tī Tâi-ôan, lâng kóng 3 tōa phài-hē. Kàu taⁿ ûi-chí, 3 tōa phài-hē tang-tiong kan-na Pe̍h-oē-jī ū teh chò bûn-jī sú-iōng.

Saⁿ tōa phài-hē ê pí-kàu[siu-kái]

  • Pe̍h-ōe-jī: chhiáⁿ chham-khó Pe̍h-ōe-jī chit-phiⁿ bûn-chiuⁿ.
  • TLPA (chôan-chheng "Tâi-gú Im-phiau Hong-àn", tha̍k-chòe Tho·-lú-pà )

1991 nî 8 go̍eh 17 hō, ha̍k-chiá Âng Ûi-jîn, Tiuⁿ Jū-hông, Táng Tiong-su saⁿ lâng chhōa-thâu sêng-li̍p Tâi-ôan Gú-bûn Ha̍k-hōe. Bô lōa kú liáu-āu, Tâi-ôan Gú-bûn Ha̍k-hōe tī Pe̍h-ōe-jī im-phiau hē-thóng ê ki-chhó· siōng chè-tēng chhut chi̍t-thò Sin--ê "Tâi-gí Im-phiau" ( phèng-im hû-hō ), hō-miâ "Tâi-gú Im-phiau Hong-àn" ( Taiwan Language Phonetic Alphabet, kán-chheng TLPA ).

Beh chè-tēng TLPA ê gôan-in sī: " (1) Tâi-gí im-phiau ū chin chōe thó, chó·-gāi Tâi-ôan gí-giân ê ha̍k-si̍p kah hoat-tián; (2) Pe̍h-ōe-jī bô ôan-chôan sek-ha̍p tiān-náu " ( 台語符號ê競爭─以TLPA kah白話字做例. Iûⁿ Ún-giân ).

TLPA hām Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) siōng chú-iàu ê chha-pia̍t sī:

TLPA hām POJ chú-iàu ê chha-pia̍t
Hong-àn TLPA POJ soeh-bêng
chú-im c, ch ch, chh chho·-kî TLPA sī ts, tsh
bó-im ue, ua oe, oa  
bó-im oo  
bó-im ing eng  
phīⁿ-hòa-im nn  
tiāu-hû a1,a2,a3,a4,a5,a7,a8 a,á,à,a,â,ā,a̍ iōng "-a " chòe pí-lūn

TLPA kong-pò· liáu-āu, tī Tâi-ôan Bân-lâm-gí-kài ín-khì chin tōa ê hong-pho, chō-chiâⁿ TLPA ê chi-chî-chiá hām POJ chi-chî-chiá 2-phài chi-kan tn̂g-kî lâi leh tùi-khòng.

Hok-kiàn ê Bân-lâm-gú phèng-im hong-àn[siu-kái]

  • Hok-kiàn Bân-lâm, ôan-á sī siāng chá sîⁿ-kiâⁿ Pe̍h-ōe-jī ê só·-chāi chi-it, chit hong-bīn ê sìn-sit, chhiáⁿ chham-khòaⁿ Bân-lâm-gí Pe̍h-ōe-jī ê le̍k-sú. Kàu kah hiān-chú-sî ûi chí, tī Bân-lâm bîn-kan ê káu-tn̂g, ôan-á iáu-koh ū lâng teh sú-iōng Pe̍h-ōe-jī (Khó· Tiông-an, Ē-mn̂g Tāi-ha̍k), put-jî-kò lâng-sò· í-keng bô chōe ah.
  • Put-jî-kò, Tī Tiong-kok Tāi-lio̍k, tùi Bân-lâm-gí lâi kóng, siāng-kài chē lâng sú-iōng ê im-phiau, sī Kok-chè Im-piau.

Pe̍h-ōe-jī ê im-phiau hē-thóng[siu-kái]

Pe̍h-ōe-jī ê im-phiau hē-thóng chhiáⁿ chham-khòaⁿ Ē-mn̂g-ōe gú-im hē-thóng chit-phiⁿ.

Bân-lâm-gú bûn-jī-hòa kán-kài[siu-kái]

Chá-kî ê Bân-lâm-gú bûn-ha̍k[siu-kái]

Tiong-kok kó·-tāi Hàn-gú bûn-ha̍k, thàu-té sī Khóng-chú-jī (Hôa-gú: 文言文) ê bûn-hiàn chiàm cho̍at-tùi ê iâⁿ-bīn, iah nā sio̍k-î pe̍h-ōe-bûn ê Tn̂g-lâng-jī, to̍h chiâⁿ hán-tit the̍h lâi chòe bûn-ha̍k chhòng-chok. It-ti̍t kàu kah Bêng, Chheng ê sî-tāi, chiah khah chia̍p ū leh khòaⁿ tio̍h thong-sio̍k ê kháu-gú siáu-soat, pí-lūn Tiong-kok ê kó·-tián sù tāi bêng-chok to̍h-sī chit-ê sî-kî ê chok-phín. Tī chit-chióng khôan-kéng kah pōe-kéng chi-hā, siōng chá ê Bân-lâm-gú bûn-ha̍k chok-phín "Lē-kiàⁿ-kì" (荔鏡記) chhut-pán, pēng-chhiáⁿ tī Chôan-chiu kah Tiô-chiu chit-tah chiâⁿ-chòe kài sî-kiâⁿ ê hì-bûn. Put-jî-kò si̍t-chāi kóng, Lē-kiàⁿ-kì iáu-koh m̄-sī chin-chin-chiàⁿ-chiàⁿ ê Bân-lâm-gú bûn.

Siōng-kài ē-tàng tāi-piáu chá-kî Bân-lâm-gú bûn-jī--ê, sī kì-chài Chôan-chiu lâm-kóan gē-su̍t (pau-koah lâm-kóan-ga̍k hām lâm-kóan-hì ) ê ga̍k-phó· kah lō·-bóe kì-chài koa-á-hì hì-bûn ê koa-á-chheh.

20 sè-kì téng-pòaⁿ-tōaⁿ ê Bân-lâm-gú-bûn ūn-tōng[siu-kái]

Se-gôan 20 sè-kì ê chá-kî kah tiong-kî, Tâi-ôan khì hō· Ji̍t-pún si̍t-bîn thóng-tī. Hit-tong-sî, chi̍t-kóa-á Tâi-ôan chāi-tōe ê bûn-ha̍k jîn-sū, hoat-kak tio̍h pún-thó· gú-giân ê tiōng-iàu, in ho·-iok Tâi-ôan chāi-tōe-lâng to̍h-ài iōng "siōng-kài chhin-chhiat ê Tâi-ôan-ōe lâi chhóng-chok Tâi-ôan ê bûn-ha̍k". Put-jî-kò in-ūi Ji̍t-pún si̍t-bîn chèng-hú ūi-tio̍h thui-hêng hông-bîn-hòa ūn-tōng, soah chôan-bīn kìm-chí tī Tâi-ôan sú-iōng Hàn-bûn, tì-sú tú leh puh-íⁿ ê hiong-thó· bó-gú bûn-ha̍k ūn-tōng soah chôaⁿ chhàu-ta o·-áu khì. Chit-ê sî-kî, thui-sak hiong-thó· bó-gú bûn-ha̍k ūn-tōng ê tāi-piáu jîn-bu̍t, chú-iàu pau-koah: Liân Un-kheng (連溫卿), Liân Ngá-tông (連雅堂), N̂g Se̍k-hui (黃石輝), Keh Chhiu-seng (郭秋生).

1970 nî-tāi ê Bân-lâm-gú-bûn ūn-tōng[siu-kái]

Kok-bîn-tóng chèng-hú soan-pò· kái-giâm liáu-āu, Tâi-ôan ê Bân-lâm-gú-bûn chhòng-chok chôaⁿ hiông-hiông sî-kiâⁿ--khí-lâi, chiâⁿ-chōe chok-ka kah ha̍k-chiá mā lóng ka-ji̍p "Bân-lâm-gú-bûn chhòng-chok" chit-ki tūi-ngó·. Iú-koan chu-liāu ê kì-chài hián-sī, chit-tīn lâng tang-tiong khah chú-iàu--ê sī: Lîm-kím-hiân (林錦賢), Lîm Chong-gôan (林宗源), N̂g Kèng-liân (黃勁連), Lîm Iong-bín (林央敏), Âng Ûi-jîn (洪惟仁), Tēⁿ Liông-úi (鄭良偉), Tân Bêng-jîn (陳明仁), Tō·-Phoaⁿ Hong-keh, (杜潘芳格), Ngô· Siù-lē (吳秀麗), Lí Khîn-hōaⁿ (李勤岸), téng-téng.

Bân-lâm-gú-bûn ê su-siá hē-thóng[siu-kái]

Bân-lâm-gú sī Hàn-cho̍k gí-giân ê chi̍t-chió̍ng, i ê su-siá hē-thóng hām Hiān-tāi Hàn-gú Pe̍h-ōe-bûn (iā-to̍h-sī Hôa-gí su-bīn-gú) ôan-chôan bô sio-siâng. Bân-lâm-gú ê su-siá hē-thóng siá--ê sī Bân-lâm-gú pe̍h-ōe-bûn, mā-to̍h-sī "kháu-gú". Bân-lâm-gú pe̍h-ōe-bûn ū-tang-sî-á kán-chheng hō·-chòe "Bân-lâm-gú-bûn", Tâi-ôan khah chia̍p kóng chòe "Tâi-gí-bûn".

Siá Bân-lâm-gú-bûn, chhái-iōng tó-chi̍t-chióng bûn-jī leh? si̍t-chāi kóng, chit-ê būn-tôe tī bú-gú-kài kàu taⁿ pēng bô kiōng-sek, jî-chhiáⁿ chit hong-bīn ê khang-khè chú-iàu mā kan-na sī Tâi-ôan-lâng teh chòe. Tī Tâi-ôan, Bân-lâm-gú ê su-siá, chú-iàu ū:

  • Chôan-pō· iōng Hàn-jī, kán-chheng "chôan-Hán".
  • Chôan-pō· iōng Lô-má-jī, kán-chheng "chôan-Lô".
  • Hán-jī kah Lô-mā-jī tâng-chê iōng, thàu-lām chòe-chi̍t-ē. Kūn-kù kok lâng siá-jī ê hong-keh kah si̍p-kòan bô kāng-khóan, ē-sái pun-chò "phian-Hàn" kah "phian-Lô".
  • Kî-thaⁿ ê hong-sek, pí-lūn: Chú-im sek, kha-na sek, Gān-bûn sek...téng-éng.

Chóng--sī, hiān-chú-sî, Tâi-ôan Bân-lâm-gú ê su-siá ôan-á iáu-bē ta̍t-sêng thóng-it ê ì-kiàn, phài-hē chiâⁿ chōe, khó-pí chi̍t-iūⁿ bí chhī phah-iūⁿ lâng, hō· lâng khòaⁿ kah bū-sahⁿ-sahⁿ koh hoe-kô-kô. Put-jî-kò, chêng 1990 nî-lâi í-lâi, chú-tiuⁿ kiâⁿ chôan-Lô lō·-sòaⁿ ê siaⁿ-soeh kài tōa, tang-tiong siāng hiáⁿ-ba̍k--ê sī POJ-bûn. Chi-chhî-chiá kái-soeh kóng chôan-Lô khí-bé ū ē-kha ê iu-tiám, he sī Hán-jī a̍h-sī kî-thaⁿ hêng-sek ê bûn-jī hû-hō bô hoat-tō· thang pí-phēng--ê:

  1. siāng hong-piān kah pa̍t-chióng kāng-khóan sú-iōng Lô-má-jī ê gú-bûn chìn-hêng ko·-thong;
  2. Lô-má-jī sī piáu-im bûn-jī, ē-tàng chún-khak lâi phiau-sī kah kì-lio̍h gú-im.
  3. Thiaⁿ-í-kóng Lô-má-jī koh ū tiān-niáu chhù-lí chit hong-bīn ê iu-sè? Put-jî-kò hiān-chú-sî tùi Bân-lâm-gú Lô-má-jī lâi kóng, chit-khóan ê "iu-sè" put-chūn-chāi, in-ui Bân-lâm-gú Lô-má-jī tī chit hong-bīn tú-chiah leh khí-pō· niâ, iáu-koh m̄-sī chin sêng-se̍k, iu-gôan ū bōe-chió khiàm-tiám tī--leh.
  4. mā ū bōe-chió lâng jīn-ûi sú-iōng chôan-Lô ē-tàng thiat-tóe thoat-lī Hàn-jī ê sok-pa̍k. Chi-chhî thoat-Hàn--ê, koh ū 2-chióng bô kâng koan-tiám ê lâng, 1-chióng jīn-ûi beh thoat-Hàn sī in-ūi Hàn-jī bô-kàu iōng, hāu-ek kē, chiâⁿ lióng-kong; kok lēng-1-chióng chú-tiuⁿ chí-ū thoat-Hàn chiah ē-tàng hō· Tâi-ôan tī bûn-hòa siōng ôan-chôan lâi kah Tiong-kok chhé hō·-i lī-lī-lī.

Bo̍k-chiân, Tâi-ôan Bân-lâm-gú-bûn ê su-siá, khah sêng-kong--ê, pau-koah: (1) chit-kòa-á chhái-iōng "Chôan-Lô" a̍h-sī "Hàn-Lô" ê khan-bu̍t. Pí-lūn kóng "Tâi-bûn Thong-sìn", Tâi-bûn Bóng-pò...téng-téng. (2) Bāng-chām, chhan-chhiūⁿ ôan-chôan chhái-iōng POJ ê Bân-lâm-gí wikipedia kah i ê chí-bē sū-kang téng-téng.

Bân-lâm-gú ū chōe-chōe ê miâ[siu-kái]

Kóng--khí-lâi sī kāng chi̍t-chióng gú-giân, put-jî-kò tī bô-kâng ê hiuⁿ-lí, hōan-sè to̍h ū bô-kâng ê miâ-chheng. Hiān-chú-sî, tī Hok-kiàn, lâng thàu-té kā kiò-chòe "Bân-lâm-gú" (Bân-lâm-ōe), ū-tang-sî-á ka-kī lâng tùi ka-kī lâng mā kóng "lán-lâng-ōe". Tī Tang-lâm-a, thàu-té kā kiò-chòe Hok-kiàn-ōe, m̄-koh tiàm Hui-lu̍t-pin mā chhêng-chāi ū leh kóng "lán-chhù-ōe". Tâi-ôan ê kóng-hoat siōng-kài chōe, ū "Tâi-gí", "Hō-ló-ōe", "Bân-lâm-gí"...chōe-chōe chióng, tong-jiân, kāng-khóan mā-sī ū lâng kóng "lán-chhù-ōe".

Tâi-oân, ū chē-chē lâng bô sêng-jīn "Tâi-gí" to̍h-sī "Bân-lâm-gí", in jīn-ûi Hiān-chú-sî ê "Tâi-gí" hām Hok-kiàn Bân-lâm-gí sī 2-chióng bô siô-siâng ê gí-giân. Chú-tiuⁿ chit-hāng koan-tiám ê lí-iû sī:

  1. Tâi-gí í-keng lām-chham tio̍h chiâⁿ chōe gōa-lâi gí-giân, te̍k-pia̍t sī Ji̍t-pún-oē ê gí-sû.
  2. Hok-kiàn-oē kòe Tâi-oân saⁿ-sì-pah tang--a, Tâi-oân-oē ti̍t-thàu leh piàn-hòa, piàn kah chhām Hok-kiàn bô siô-siâng.
  3. Bōe-chió chú-tiuⁿ Tâi-oân to̍k-li̍p kiàn-kok ê lâng àn chèng-tī ê kak-tō· leh khó-lū, in kiông-tiāu Tâi-oân hôan Tâi-oân, Tiong-kok hôan Tiong-kok; hî hôan hî, hê hôan hê, ài pun chheng-chhó.

Goā-pō· liân-kiat[siu-kái]